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4-(Phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-One Suppresses Melanin Synthesis and Melanosome Maturation In Vitro and In Vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study, we screened compounds with skin whitening properties and favorable safety profiles from a series of marine related natural products, which were isolated from Formosan soft coral Cladiella australis. Our results indicated that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one could successfully inhibit pigment generation processes in mushroom tyrosinase platform assay, probably through the suppression of tyrosinase activity to be a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase. In cell-based viability examinations, it demonstrated low cytotoxicity on melanoma cells and other normal human cells. It exhibited stronger inhibitions of melanin production and tyrosinase activity than arbutin or 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU). Also, we discovered that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one reduces the protein expressions of melanin synthesis-related proteins, including the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Trp-1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT, Trp-2), and glycoprotein 100 (GP100). In an in vivo zebrafish model, it presented a remarkable suppression in melanogenesis after 48 h. In summary, our in vitro and in vivo biological assays showed that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one possesses anti-melanogenic properties that are significant in medical cosmetology.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Photoes and quantitated results of 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one on the pigmentation levels of the zebrafish system. The experimental conditions were similar to those in Figure 5, except one group had sustained treatment for another 24 h. Phenotype-based evaluations of the zebrafish body pigmentation were then carried out at three dpf. (* p < 0.05 compared to the sustained delivery in control group; and # p < 0.05 compared to the stopping treatment in control group).
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ijms-16-20240-f006: Photoes and quantitated results of 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one on the pigmentation levels of the zebrafish system. The experimental conditions were similar to those in Figure 5, except one group had sustained treatment for another 24 h. Phenotype-based evaluations of the zebrafish body pigmentation were then carried out at three dpf. (* p < 0.05 compared to the sustained delivery in control group; and # p < 0.05 compared to the stopping treatment in control group).

Mentions: Next, we scrutinized the compound intermittent-treatment response in zebrafish as shown in Figure 6. Briefly, after a 9-h fertilization period and 48 h of treatment, one group was continuously cultured in sample conditions for 24 h, and the other group was without 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one in the otherwise same conditions. The compound sustained handling group showed obvious suppression of zebrafish melanin generation at each concentration (10, 50, and 100 µM). On the other side, the compound treatment stopped group presented pigment recovery, and at doses lower than 100 µM, the recovery-pigment contents were similar to the vehicle control group.


4-(Phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-One Suppresses Melanin Synthesis and Melanosome Maturation In Vitro and In Vivo
Photoes and quantitated results of 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one on the pigmentation levels of the zebrafish system. The experimental conditions were similar to those in Figure 5, except one group had sustained treatment for another 24 h. Phenotype-based evaluations of the zebrafish body pigmentation were then carried out at three dpf. (* p < 0.05 compared to the sustained delivery in control group; and # p < 0.05 compared to the stopping treatment in control group).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4613201&req=5

ijms-16-20240-f006: Photoes and quantitated results of 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one on the pigmentation levels of the zebrafish system. The experimental conditions were similar to those in Figure 5, except one group had sustained treatment for another 24 h. Phenotype-based evaluations of the zebrafish body pigmentation were then carried out at three dpf. (* p < 0.05 compared to the sustained delivery in control group; and # p < 0.05 compared to the stopping treatment in control group).
Mentions: Next, we scrutinized the compound intermittent-treatment response in zebrafish as shown in Figure 6. Briefly, after a 9-h fertilization period and 48 h of treatment, one group was continuously cultured in sample conditions for 24 h, and the other group was without 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one in the otherwise same conditions. The compound sustained handling group showed obvious suppression of zebrafish melanin generation at each concentration (10, 50, and 100 µM). On the other side, the compound treatment stopped group presented pigment recovery, and at doses lower than 100 µM, the recovery-pigment contents were similar to the vehicle control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study, we screened compounds with skin whitening properties and favorable safety profiles from a series of marine related natural products, which were isolated from Formosan soft coral Cladiella australis. Our results indicated that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one could successfully inhibit pigment generation processes in mushroom tyrosinase platform assay, probably through the suppression of tyrosinase activity to be a non-competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase. In cell-based viability examinations, it demonstrated low cytotoxicity on melanoma cells and other normal human cells. It exhibited stronger inhibitions of melanin production and tyrosinase activity than arbutin or 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU). Also, we discovered that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one reduces the protein expressions of melanin synthesis-related proteins, including the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (Trp-1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT, Trp-2), and glycoprotein 100 (GP100). In an in vivo zebrafish model, it presented a remarkable suppression in melanogenesis after 48 h. In summary, our in vitro and in vivo biological assays showed that 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one possesses anti-melanogenic properties that are significant in medical cosmetology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus