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Diversity and distribution of Actinobacteria associated with reef coral Porites lutea.

Kuang W, Li J, Zhang S, Long L - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater.Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors.This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-Resources and Ecology, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou, China ; College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Actinobacteria is a ubiquitous major group in coral holobiont. The diversity and spatial and temporal distribution of actinobacteria have been rarely documented. In this study, diversity of actinobacteria associated with mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and in the surrounding seawater were examined every 3 months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The population structures of the P. lutea-associated actinobacteria were analyzed using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which demonstrated highly diverse actinobacteria profiles in P. lutea. A total of 25 described families and 10 unnamed families were determined in the populations, and 12 genera were firstly detected in corals. The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater. Only 10 OTUs were shared by the seawater and coral samples. Redundancy and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to analyze the correlation between the variations of actinobacteria population within the divergent compartments of P. lutea, seasonal changes, and environmental factors. The actinobacteria communities in the same coral compartment tended to cluster together. Even so, an extremely small fraction of OTUs was common in all three P. lutea compartments. Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors. This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

RDA ordination triplot showing the relationship among the environmental variables, coral samples, and actinobacterial components. Correlations between environmental variables and the first two RDA axes are represented by the lengths and angles of the arrows (environmental-factor vectors). Only abundant actinobacterial groups (>1%) were showed in the triplot. UV, ultraviolet radiation intensity; Temp, seawater temperature; DO, dissolved oxygen.
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Figure 4: RDA ordination triplot showing the relationship among the environmental variables, coral samples, and actinobacterial components. Correlations between environmental variables and the first two RDA axes are represented by the lengths and angles of the arrows (environmental-factor vectors). Only abundant actinobacterial groups (>1%) were showed in the triplot. UV, ultraviolet radiation intensity; Temp, seawater temperature; DO, dissolved oxygen.

Mentions: Results of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the actinobacteria communities were significantly different between in the coral and in the surrounding seawater samples (p = 0.01, R = 0.993). The actinobacterial communities associated with the same coral compartments tended to cluster together (Figure 3). The season factor did not significantly influence the variation in the actinobacteria communities. The RDA results indicated that 38.9% of the total variance in the coral-associated actinobacterial composition was explained by the environmental, spatial and temporal factors (Figure 4). The first and second axes differentiated the actinobacteria assemblages in the distinct coral compartments (Figure 4, Table S1). This result was consistent with the hierarchical cluster analysis. None of the environment parameters analyzed in this study was determined as the significant influencing factor in the variation of the P. lutea associated actinobacteria communities. A triplot map illustrated the relationship between major actinobacterial groups, with abundance more than 1%, and the environmental parameters (Figure 4). Friedmanniella and Micrococcus were positively related with the salinity. Microbacterium, Propionibacterium, and group 480-2 were positively correlated with seawater temperature, but negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen.


Diversity and distribution of Actinobacteria associated with reef coral Porites lutea.

Kuang W, Li J, Zhang S, Long L - Front Microbiol (2015)

RDA ordination triplot showing the relationship among the environmental variables, coral samples, and actinobacterial components. Correlations between environmental variables and the first two RDA axes are represented by the lengths and angles of the arrows (environmental-factor vectors). Only abundant actinobacterial groups (>1%) were showed in the triplot. UV, ultraviolet radiation intensity; Temp, seawater temperature; DO, dissolved oxygen.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4612714&req=5

Figure 4: RDA ordination triplot showing the relationship among the environmental variables, coral samples, and actinobacterial components. Correlations between environmental variables and the first two RDA axes are represented by the lengths and angles of the arrows (environmental-factor vectors). Only abundant actinobacterial groups (>1%) were showed in the triplot. UV, ultraviolet radiation intensity; Temp, seawater temperature; DO, dissolved oxygen.
Mentions: Results of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the actinobacteria communities were significantly different between in the coral and in the surrounding seawater samples (p = 0.01, R = 0.993). The actinobacterial communities associated with the same coral compartments tended to cluster together (Figure 3). The season factor did not significantly influence the variation in the actinobacteria communities. The RDA results indicated that 38.9% of the total variance in the coral-associated actinobacterial composition was explained by the environmental, spatial and temporal factors (Figure 4). The first and second axes differentiated the actinobacteria assemblages in the distinct coral compartments (Figure 4, Table S1). This result was consistent with the hierarchical cluster analysis. None of the environment parameters analyzed in this study was determined as the significant influencing factor in the variation of the P. lutea associated actinobacteria communities. A triplot map illustrated the relationship between major actinobacterial groups, with abundance more than 1%, and the environmental parameters (Figure 4). Friedmanniella and Micrococcus were positively related with the salinity. Microbacterium, Propionibacterium, and group 480-2 were positively correlated with seawater temperature, but negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen.

Bottom Line: The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater.Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors.This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-Resources and Ecology, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou, China ; College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Actinobacteria is a ubiquitous major group in coral holobiont. The diversity and spatial and temporal distribution of actinobacteria have been rarely documented. In this study, diversity of actinobacteria associated with mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and in the surrounding seawater were examined every 3 months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The population structures of the P. lutea-associated actinobacteria were analyzed using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which demonstrated highly diverse actinobacteria profiles in P. lutea. A total of 25 described families and 10 unnamed families were determined in the populations, and 12 genera were firstly detected in corals. The Actinobacteria diversity was significantly different between the P. lutea and the surrounding seawater. Only 10 OTUs were shared by the seawater and coral samples. Redundancy and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to analyze the correlation between the variations of actinobacteria population within the divergent compartments of P. lutea, seasonal changes, and environmental factors. The actinobacteria communities in the same coral compartment tended to cluster together. Even so, an extremely small fraction of OTUs was common in all three P. lutea compartments. Analysis of the relationship between actinobacteria assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that several genera were closely related to specific environmental factors. This study highlights that coral-associated actinobacteria populations are highly diverse, and spatially structured within P. lutea, and they are distinct from which in the ambient seawater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus