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Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.

Man B, Wang H, Xiang X, Wang R, Yun Y, Gong L - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively.Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly.Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT
Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in cave ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Location of the Heshang Cave and sampling sites.(A) The dark gray area shows the location of Hubei province. (B) The location of the Heshang Cave indicated by GPS, which lies in the south bank of the Qingjiang Valley, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (http://www.google.com/earth/). (C) Outside view of the Heshang Cave. (D) Sampling sites of sediments (S), weathered rocks (P), and bat guanos (G).
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Figure 1: Location of the Heshang Cave and sampling sites.(A) The dark gray area shows the location of Hubei province. (B) The location of the Heshang Cave indicated by GPS, which lies in the south bank of the Qingjiang Valley, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (http://www.google.com/earth/). (C) Outside view of the Heshang Cave. (D) Sampling sites of sediments (S), weathered rocks (P), and bat guanos (G).

Mentions: The Heshang Cave, a horizontally oriented solution cave, developed in Cambrian dolomite, lies in the south bank of Qingjiang Valley in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (30°27′ N, 110°25′ E; and 294 m altitude, Figures 1A,B). It is an oligotrophic dark, karst cave overlain by ∼400 m of Cambrian dolomite. The cave is about 250 m long, 20 m in width and height with a sole entrance 30 m above the Qingjiang River (Figure 1C). The cave is only accessible by boat with seldom human disturbance. The East Asian Monsoon poses significant influence on this karst region and makes the cave wet throughout the year with an intermittent subterranean stream and active drips. The annual mean temperature is between 16 and 18°C (Hu et al., 2008).


Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.

Man B, Wang H, Xiang X, Wang R, Yun Y, Gong L - Front Microbiol (2015)

Location of the Heshang Cave and sampling sites.(A) The dark gray area shows the location of Hubei province. (B) The location of the Heshang Cave indicated by GPS, which lies in the south bank of the Qingjiang Valley, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (http://www.google.com/earth/). (C) Outside view of the Heshang Cave. (D) Sampling sites of sediments (S), weathered rocks (P), and bat guanos (G).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4612708&req=5

Figure 1: Location of the Heshang Cave and sampling sites.(A) The dark gray area shows the location of Hubei province. (B) The location of the Heshang Cave indicated by GPS, which lies in the south bank of the Qingjiang Valley, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (http://www.google.com/earth/). (C) Outside view of the Heshang Cave. (D) Sampling sites of sediments (S), weathered rocks (P), and bat guanos (G).
Mentions: The Heshang Cave, a horizontally oriented solution cave, developed in Cambrian dolomite, lies in the south bank of Qingjiang Valley in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (30°27′ N, 110°25′ E; and 294 m altitude, Figures 1A,B). It is an oligotrophic dark, karst cave overlain by ∼400 m of Cambrian dolomite. The cave is about 250 m long, 20 m in width and height with a sole entrance 30 m above the Qingjiang River (Figure 1C). The cave is only accessible by boat with seldom human disturbance. The East Asian Monsoon poses significant influence on this karst region and makes the cave wet throughout the year with an intermittent subterranean stream and active drips. The annual mean temperature is between 16 and 18°C (Hu et al., 2008).

Bottom Line: At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively.Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly.Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT
Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in cave ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.