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Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

Santos A, Fernández-Friera L, Villalba M, López-Melgar B, España S, Mateo J, Mota RA, Jiménez-Borreguero J, Ruiz-Cabello J - Front Pharmacol (2015)

Bottom Line: Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results.We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases.Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Madrid, Spain ; CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES) Madrid, Spain ; Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium Madrid, Spain ; Department of Anesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative short axis (upper panel) and long axis (low panels) cardiac magnetic resonance images taken at the end of diastole (left panels) and systole (right panels) in WT mice. Adapted from Figure 3 in Cruz et al. (2015).
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Figure 4: Representative short axis (upper panel) and long axis (low panels) cardiac magnetic resonance images taken at the end of diastole (left panels) and systole (right panels) in WT mice. Adapted from Figure 3 in Cruz et al. (2015).

Mentions: In vivo MRI provides excellent views of cardiac structures and allows high quality spatial resolution of the heart, and recently has emerged as an accurately instrument for functional cardiac evaluation as high temporal resolutions are also achieved (Yue et al., 2007; Figure 4). Cardiac gating is essential to reduce the level of motion artifacts and therefore, to obtain images of sufficient quality (Cassidy et al., 2004). Assessment of cardiac anatomy, regional wall motion, myocardial perfusion, myocardial viability plus cardiac chamber quantification, and cardiac function are applications described in mice (Pohlmann et al., 2011). Conventional views in mice are similar to those used in human cardiac MRI. Long-axis, two and four-chamber views as well as a multi-slice short-axis view from base to apex are commonly used in bright-blood and black-blood spin-echo.


Cardiovascular imaging: what have we learned from animal models?

Santos A, Fernández-Friera L, Villalba M, López-Melgar B, España S, Mateo J, Mota RA, Jiménez-Borreguero J, Ruiz-Cabello J - Front Pharmacol (2015)

Representative short axis (upper panel) and long axis (low panels) cardiac magnetic resonance images taken at the end of diastole (left panels) and systole (right panels) in WT mice. Adapted from Figure 3 in Cruz et al. (2015).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4612690&req=5

Figure 4: Representative short axis (upper panel) and long axis (low panels) cardiac magnetic resonance images taken at the end of diastole (left panels) and systole (right panels) in WT mice. Adapted from Figure 3 in Cruz et al. (2015).
Mentions: In vivo MRI provides excellent views of cardiac structures and allows high quality spatial resolution of the heart, and recently has emerged as an accurately instrument for functional cardiac evaluation as high temporal resolutions are also achieved (Yue et al., 2007; Figure 4). Cardiac gating is essential to reduce the level of motion artifacts and therefore, to obtain images of sufficient quality (Cassidy et al., 2004). Assessment of cardiac anatomy, regional wall motion, myocardial perfusion, myocardial viability plus cardiac chamber quantification, and cardiac function are applications described in mice (Pohlmann et al., 2011). Conventional views in mice are similar to those used in human cardiac MRI. Long-axis, two and four-chamber views as well as a multi-slice short-axis view from base to apex are commonly used in bright-blood and black-blood spin-echo.

Bottom Line: Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results.We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases.Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Madrid, Spain ; CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES) Madrid, Spain ; Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium Madrid, Spain ; Department of Anesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for patient diagnosis and follow up. Probably the wide clinical applications of imaging are due to the possibility of a detailed and high quality description and quantification of cardiovascular system structure and function. Also phenomena that involve complex physiological mechanisms and biochemical pathways, such as inflammation and ischemia, can be visualized in a non-destructive way. The widespread use and evolution of imaging would not have been possible without animal studies. Animal models have allowed for instance, (i) the technical development of different imaging tools, (ii) to test hypothesis generated from human studies and finally, (iii) to evaluate the translational relevance assessment of in vitro and ex-vivo results. In this review, we will critically describe the contribution of animal models to the use of biomedical imaging in cardiovascular medicine. We will discuss the characteristics of the most frequent models used in/for imaging studies. We will cover the major findings of animal studies focused in the cardiovascular use of the repeatedly used imaging techniques in clinical practice and experimental studies. We will also describe the physiological findings and/or learning processes for imaging applications coming from models of the most common cardiovascular diseases. In these diseases, imaging research using animals has allowed the study of aspects such as: ventricular size, shape, global function, and wall thickening, local myocardial function, myocardial perfusion, metabolism and energetic assessment, infarct quantification, vascular lesion characterization, myocardial fiber structure, and myocardial calcium uptake. Finally we will discuss the limitations and future of imaging research with animal models.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus