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Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

Babcock L, Vallesi A - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced.These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages.Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Executive Function Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padova Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups.

No MeSH data available.


N-2 repetition costs for each language by group on the language switching paradigm. Blue bars represent groups without training, red bars represent groups with training; light bars represent groups without recent practice, dark bars represent groups with recent practice. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. ∗p < 0.05 for the comparison of n-2 repetition and non-repetition trials.
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Figure 2: N-2 repetition costs for each language by group on the language switching paradigm. Blue bars represent groups without training, red bars represent groups with training; light bars represent groups without recent practice, dark bars represent groups with recent practice. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. ∗p < 0.05 for the comparison of n-2 repetition and non-repetition trials.

Mentions: The RT analysis showed a main effect of trial type [F(1,65) = 91.794, p < 0.001, = 0.585]. Responses were faster to n-2 non-repetition trials than n-2 repetition trials, demonstrating the expected n-2 repetition cost (see Table 2 for values). The main effect of language was also significant [F(1.831,119.044) = 33.125, p < 0.001, = 0.338]. Post hoc t-tests (evaluated at α = 0.017 to correct for multiple comparisons) revealed that responses to L1 were faster than to L2 and L3 [t(68) = 6.179, p < 0.001 and t(68) = 7.879, p < 0.001, respectively], with no difference between L2 and L3 (p = 0.813). Trial type and language also showed a significant interaction [F(1.964,127.675) = 8.878, p < 0.001, = 0.120]. Through post hoc t-tests (evaluated at α = 0.017 to correct for multiple comparisons), the n-2 repetition cost in L1 was shown to be smaller than in L2 and L3 [t(68) = 2.951, p = 0.004 and t(68) = 3.738, p < 0.001, respectively], which did not differ (p = 0.515). There were no main effects due to training (p = 0.327) or recent practice (p = 0.260), nor was there a significant interaction between these two factors (p = 0.753). However, these group level factors did show significant interactions with the trial type and language interaction. The three-way interaction of trial type, language, and training was significant [F(1.964,127.675) = 3.735, p = 0.027, = 0.054], as was the four-way interaction of trial type, language, training, and recent SI practice [F(1.964,127.675) = 3.361, p = 0.039, = 0.049, Figure 2]. No other interactions were significant (ps ≥ 0.115).


Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

Babcock L, Vallesi A - Front Psychol (2015)

N-2 repetition costs for each language by group on the language switching paradigm. Blue bars represent groups without training, red bars represent groups with training; light bars represent groups without recent practice, dark bars represent groups with recent practice. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. ∗p < 0.05 for the comparison of n-2 repetition and non-repetition trials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4612644&req=5

Figure 2: N-2 repetition costs for each language by group on the language switching paradigm. Blue bars represent groups without training, red bars represent groups with training; light bars represent groups without recent practice, dark bars represent groups with recent practice. Error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. ∗p < 0.05 for the comparison of n-2 repetition and non-repetition trials.
Mentions: The RT analysis showed a main effect of trial type [F(1,65) = 91.794, p < 0.001, = 0.585]. Responses were faster to n-2 non-repetition trials than n-2 repetition trials, demonstrating the expected n-2 repetition cost (see Table 2 for values). The main effect of language was also significant [F(1.831,119.044) = 33.125, p < 0.001, = 0.338]. Post hoc t-tests (evaluated at α = 0.017 to correct for multiple comparisons) revealed that responses to L1 were faster than to L2 and L3 [t(68) = 6.179, p < 0.001 and t(68) = 7.879, p < 0.001, respectively], with no difference between L2 and L3 (p = 0.813). Trial type and language also showed a significant interaction [F(1.964,127.675) = 8.878, p < 0.001, = 0.120]. Through post hoc t-tests (evaluated at α = 0.017 to correct for multiple comparisons), the n-2 repetition cost in L1 was shown to be smaller than in L2 and L3 [t(68) = 2.951, p = 0.004 and t(68) = 3.738, p < 0.001, respectively], which did not differ (p = 0.515). There were no main effects due to training (p = 0.327) or recent practice (p = 0.260), nor was there a significant interaction between these two factors (p = 0.753). However, these group level factors did show significant interactions with the trial type and language interaction. The three-way interaction of trial type, language, and training was significant [F(1.964,127.675) = 3.735, p = 0.027, = 0.054], as was the four-way interaction of trial type, language, training, and recent SI practice [F(1.964,127.675) = 3.361, p = 0.039, = 0.049, Figure 2]. No other interactions were significant (ps ≥ 0.115).

Bottom Line: One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced.These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages.Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Executive Function Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padova Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups.

No MeSH data available.