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Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer.

Coda S, Siersema PD, Stamp GW, Thillainayagam AV - Endosc Int Open (2015)

Bottom Line: In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo "optical biopsy." These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients.However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology.Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom ; Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom ; Endoscopy Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom ; Department of Endoscopy, North East London NHS Treatment Centre, Care UK, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endoscopic technique should combine a wide-field, "red flag" screening technique with an optical contrast or microscopy method for characterization and staging, all simultaneously available during the procedure. In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo "optical biopsy." These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients. However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology. This review describes some of the most recent applications of biophotonics in endoscopic optical imaging and metrology, along with their fundamental principles and the clinical experience that has been acquired in their deployment as tools for the endoscopist. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

 The principle of time-gated detection for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The excitation light pulse is shown in purple, with the fluorescence emission in green. Three detection time gates (t1, t2, and t3) are also shown.
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FI158-4:  The principle of time-gated detection for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The excitation light pulse is shown in purple, with the fluorescence emission in green. Three detection time gates (t1, t2, and t3) are also shown.

Mentions: Fluorescence lifetime in the time domain is measured by recording the intensity decay of fluorescence after excitation with a very short pulse of light. It can be done either by time gating (Fig. 4), as is used in wide-field microscopes, or by time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC), as is used in confocal microscopes and spectroscopy systems (Fig. 5). Time domain measurements are the most intuitive because they involve direct measurement of the decay of fluorescence intensity over time.


Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer.

Coda S, Siersema PD, Stamp GW, Thillainayagam AV - Endosc Int Open (2015)

 The principle of time-gated detection for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The excitation light pulse is shown in purple, with the fluorescence emission in green. Three detection time gates (t1, t2, and t3) are also shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4612244&req=5

FI158-4:  The principle of time-gated detection for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The excitation light pulse is shown in purple, with the fluorescence emission in green. Three detection time gates (t1, t2, and t3) are also shown.
Mentions: Fluorescence lifetime in the time domain is measured by recording the intensity decay of fluorescence after excitation with a very short pulse of light. It can be done either by time gating (Fig. 4), as is used in wide-field microscopes, or by time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC), as is used in confocal microscopes and spectroscopy systems (Fig. 5). Time domain measurements are the most intuitive because they involve direct measurement of the decay of fluorescence intensity over time.

Bottom Line: In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo "optical biopsy." These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients.However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology.Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom ; Photonics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom ; Endoscopy Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom ; Department of Endoscopy, North East London NHS Treatment Centre, Care UK, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endoscopic technique should combine a wide-field, "red flag" screening technique with an optical contrast or microscopy method for characterization and staging, all simultaneously available during the procedure. In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo "optical biopsy." These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients. However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology. This review describes some of the most recent applications of biophotonics in endoscopic optical imaging and metrology, along with their fundamental principles and the clinical experience that has been acquired in their deployment as tools for the endoscopist. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus