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Early predictors of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection: urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cardiac output as reliable tools.

Ximenes RO, Farias AQ, Helou CM - Kidney Res Clin Pract (2015)

Bottom Line: Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours.The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases.In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemodynamic abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI) are often present in infected cirrhotic patients. Hence, an early diagnosis of AKI is necessary, which might require the validation of new predictors as the determinations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and cardiac output.

Methods: We evaluated 18 infected cirrhotic patients subdivided into two groups at admission (0 hours). In Group I, we collected urine samples at 0 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours for uNGAL and fractional excretion of sodium determinations. In Group II, we measured cardiac output using echocardiography.

Results: The age of patients was 55.0±1.9 years, and 11 patients were males. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 21±1, whereas the Child-Pugh score was C in 11 patients and B in 7 patients. Both patients in Group I and Group II showed similar baseline characteristics. In Group I, we diagnosed AKI in 5 of 9 patients, and the mean time to this diagnosis by measuring serum creatinine was 5.4 days. Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours. The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases. In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours.

Conclusion: Both uNGAL and cardiac output determinations allow the prediction of AKI in infected cirrhotic patients earlier than increments in serum creatinine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparisons between patients (Group II) with and without AKI. (A) The levels of SCr. (B) MELD score. (C) The levels of uNGAL. (D) The levels of cardiac output. AKI, acute kidney injury; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; N.S., not significant; SCr, serum creatinine.
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f0015: Comparisons between patients (Group II) with and without AKI. (A) The levels of SCr. (B) MELD score. (C) The levels of uNGAL. (D) The levels of cardiac output. AKI, acute kidney injury; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; N.S., not significant; SCr, serum creatinine.

Mentions: In Group II, 4 of 9 patients (44%) developed AKI, and these patients showed hyponatremia and higher cardiac output, heart rate, as well as MELD and Child–Pugh scores than those patients who did not develop AKI at hospital admission, as shown in Table 3. The fact that patients who developed AKI showed high MELD and Child–Pugh scores allowed us to diagnose worse liver function in these patients at hospital admission. In addition, only cardiac output levels showed significant increments to be considered a reliable predictor of AKI at hospital admission (Fig. 3). With regard to mean arterial blood pressure, SCr, serum albumin, and serum bilirubin, we did not find any statistical difference between patients who developed AKI or not (Table 3).


Early predictors of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection: urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cardiac output as reliable tools.

Ximenes RO, Farias AQ, Helou CM - Kidney Res Clin Pract (2015)

Comparisons between patients (Group II) with and without AKI. (A) The levels of SCr. (B) MELD score. (C) The levels of uNGAL. (D) The levels of cardiac output. AKI, acute kidney injury; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; N.S., not significant; SCr, serum creatinine.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608870&req=5

f0015: Comparisons between patients (Group II) with and without AKI. (A) The levels of SCr. (B) MELD score. (C) The levels of uNGAL. (D) The levels of cardiac output. AKI, acute kidney injury; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; N.S., not significant; SCr, serum creatinine.
Mentions: In Group II, 4 of 9 patients (44%) developed AKI, and these patients showed hyponatremia and higher cardiac output, heart rate, as well as MELD and Child–Pugh scores than those patients who did not develop AKI at hospital admission, as shown in Table 3. The fact that patients who developed AKI showed high MELD and Child–Pugh scores allowed us to diagnose worse liver function in these patients at hospital admission. In addition, only cardiac output levels showed significant increments to be considered a reliable predictor of AKI at hospital admission (Fig. 3). With regard to mean arterial blood pressure, SCr, serum albumin, and serum bilirubin, we did not find any statistical difference between patients who developed AKI or not (Table 3).

Bottom Line: Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours.The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases.In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Gastroenterology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemodynamic abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI) are often present in infected cirrhotic patients. Hence, an early diagnosis of AKI is necessary, which might require the validation of new predictors as the determinations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and cardiac output.

Methods: We evaluated 18 infected cirrhotic patients subdivided into two groups at admission (0 hours). In Group I, we collected urine samples at 0 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours for uNGAL and fractional excretion of sodium determinations. In Group II, we measured cardiac output using echocardiography.

Results: The age of patients was 55.0±1.9 years, and 11 patients were males. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 21±1, whereas the Child-Pugh score was C in 11 patients and B in 7 patients. Both patients in Group I and Group II showed similar baseline characteristics. In Group I, we diagnosed AKI in 5 of 9 patients, and the mean time to this diagnosis by measuring serum creatinine was 5.4 days. Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours. The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases. In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours.

Conclusion: Both uNGAL and cardiac output determinations allow the prediction of AKI in infected cirrhotic patients earlier than increments in serum creatinine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus