Limits...
Organ-on-a-chip and the kidney.

Kim S, Takayama S - Kidney Res Clin Pract (2015)

Bottom Line: Among them, organ-on-a-chip applications allow the fabrication of minimal functional units of a single organ or multiple organs.Relevant to the field of nephrology, renal tubular cells have been integrated with microfluidic devices for making kidneys-on-a-chip.Although still early in development, kidneys-on-a-chip are showing potential to provide a better understanding of the kidney to replace some traditional animal and human studies, particularly as more cell types are incorporated toward the development of a complete glomeruli-on-a-chip.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Traditional approaches to pathophysiology are advancing but still have many limitations that arise from real biologic systems and their associated physiological phenomena being too complicated. Microfluidics is a novel technology in the field of engineering, which provides new options that may overcome these hurdles. Microfluidics handles small volumes of fluids and may apply to various applications such as DNA analysis chips, other lab-on-a-chip analyses, micropropulsion, and microthermal technologies. Among them, organ-on-a-chip applications allow the fabrication of minimal functional units of a single organ or multiple organs. Relevant to the field of nephrology, renal tubular cells have been integrated with microfluidic devices for making kidneys-on-a-chip. Although still early in development, kidneys-on-a-chip are showing potential to provide a better understanding of the kidney to replace some traditional animal and human studies, particularly as more cell types are incorporated toward the development of a complete glomeruli-on-a-chip.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Application of kidney-on-a-chip.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608869&req=5

f0020: Application of kidney-on-a-chip.

Mentions: Kidney-on-a-chip has various potential applications (Fig. 4). Cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated in the kidney-on-a-chip using human proximal tubular cells [14]. Cisplatin was introduced into the bottom space, and cisplatin-induced cellular damage was monitored to the cells for 24 hours. During the following 72 hours, shear stress was helpful for facilitating recovery of the injured cells and associated biomarkers. Shear stress in the devices can facilitate translocation of aquaporin-2 and relocation of actin cytoskeleton in the kidney-on-a-chip using primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells of rat kidneys [19], which is a good example of a physiological experiment using kidney-on-a-chip. Moreover, renal tubular epithelial cells are continuously exposed to the changes of extracellular microenvironment, e.g., transepithelial osmotic gradient, and changes of luminal or interstitial pH. The effects of these physiological factors on the functions of renal tubular cells could also be investigated by exploiting microfluidics [20,21]. If the offending antigens or mechanisms of the diseases are well identified, disease modeling can be easily fabricated in the kidney-on-a-chip. Kidney injury models using nephrotoxic drugs may be simple candidates for the application. Kidney-on-a-chip is only one compartment of an eventual multiorgans-on-a-chip system [13]. To research drug metabolism, renal excretion or metabolism should not be omitted. However, some multiorgans-on-a-chip systems have been using kidney tubular cells not for evaluating renal excretion, but for measuring kidney injury. Animal renal clearance is usually higher than human renal clearance. Using pharmacokinetic data from animal models runs the risk of underestimating human nephrotoxicity. Applications of human kidney-on-a-chip may fill such gaps through control of drug concentrations and flow rates that mimic human drug clearance or metabolism.


Organ-on-a-chip and the kidney.

Kim S, Takayama S - Kidney Res Clin Pract (2015)

Application of kidney-on-a-chip.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608869&req=5

f0020: Application of kidney-on-a-chip.
Mentions: Kidney-on-a-chip has various potential applications (Fig. 4). Cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated in the kidney-on-a-chip using human proximal tubular cells [14]. Cisplatin was introduced into the bottom space, and cisplatin-induced cellular damage was monitored to the cells for 24 hours. During the following 72 hours, shear stress was helpful for facilitating recovery of the injured cells and associated biomarkers. Shear stress in the devices can facilitate translocation of aquaporin-2 and relocation of actin cytoskeleton in the kidney-on-a-chip using primary cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells of rat kidneys [19], which is a good example of a physiological experiment using kidney-on-a-chip. Moreover, renal tubular epithelial cells are continuously exposed to the changes of extracellular microenvironment, e.g., transepithelial osmotic gradient, and changes of luminal or interstitial pH. The effects of these physiological factors on the functions of renal tubular cells could also be investigated by exploiting microfluidics [20,21]. If the offending antigens or mechanisms of the diseases are well identified, disease modeling can be easily fabricated in the kidney-on-a-chip. Kidney injury models using nephrotoxic drugs may be simple candidates for the application. Kidney-on-a-chip is only one compartment of an eventual multiorgans-on-a-chip system [13]. To research drug metabolism, renal excretion or metabolism should not be omitted. However, some multiorgans-on-a-chip systems have been using kidney tubular cells not for evaluating renal excretion, but for measuring kidney injury. Animal renal clearance is usually higher than human renal clearance. Using pharmacokinetic data from animal models runs the risk of underestimating human nephrotoxicity. Applications of human kidney-on-a-chip may fill such gaps through control of drug concentrations and flow rates that mimic human drug clearance or metabolism.

Bottom Line: Among them, organ-on-a-chip applications allow the fabrication of minimal functional units of a single organ or multiple organs.Relevant to the field of nephrology, renal tubular cells have been integrated with microfluidic devices for making kidneys-on-a-chip.Although still early in development, kidneys-on-a-chip are showing potential to provide a better understanding of the kidney to replace some traditional animal and human studies, particularly as more cell types are incorporated toward the development of a complete glomeruli-on-a-chip.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Traditional approaches to pathophysiology are advancing but still have many limitations that arise from real biologic systems and their associated physiological phenomena being too complicated. Microfluidics is a novel technology in the field of engineering, which provides new options that may overcome these hurdles. Microfluidics handles small volumes of fluids and may apply to various applications such as DNA analysis chips, other lab-on-a-chip analyses, micropropulsion, and microthermal technologies. Among them, organ-on-a-chip applications allow the fabrication of minimal functional units of a single organ or multiple organs. Relevant to the field of nephrology, renal tubular cells have been integrated with microfluidic devices for making kidneys-on-a-chip. Although still early in development, kidneys-on-a-chip are showing potential to provide a better understanding of the kidney to replace some traditional animal and human studies, particularly as more cell types are incorporated toward the development of a complete glomeruli-on-a-chip.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus