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How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


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Frequency of the number of studies, body size and geographic range tested as predictors of helminth parasite species richness in South American Anurans.
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pone.0140577.g003: Frequency of the number of studies, body size and geographic range tested as predictors of helminth parasite species richness in South American Anurans.

Mentions: The predictor variables we considered as determinants of helminth PSR in anurans—host size, geographic range and study effort are related: large anurans are, in general, both more studied (r = 0.44, p > 0.01) and widely distributed (r = 0.17, p = 0.03). Hosts with wider geographic distribution are also more studied (r = 0.22, p > 0.01) (Fig 3). The nonlinear least square model showed that, as expected, study effort is strongly related to PSR (Table 1). The nls model showed that an average of four studies is needed to reveal 50% of the PSR expected for an anuran host (Table 1). Although, it is important to remember that our dataset, and therefore our predictions, are based in all kinds of studies, including parasite taxonomic reports. Even so, host size is too a good predictor of PSR, and the larger the anuran the richer its parasite fauna is expected to be (Fig 4). Host range, on the other hand, was not significantly related to PSR (Table 1), indicating that larger geographic range of the host does not imply in richer parasite fauna in anurans.


How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Frequency of the number of studies, body size and geographic range tested as predictors of helminth parasite species richness in South American Anurans.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608826&req=5

pone.0140577.g003: Frequency of the number of studies, body size and geographic range tested as predictors of helminth parasite species richness in South American Anurans.
Mentions: The predictor variables we considered as determinants of helminth PSR in anurans—host size, geographic range and study effort are related: large anurans are, in general, both more studied (r = 0.44, p > 0.01) and widely distributed (r = 0.17, p = 0.03). Hosts with wider geographic distribution are also more studied (r = 0.22, p > 0.01) (Fig 3). The nonlinear least square model showed that, as expected, study effort is strongly related to PSR (Table 1). The nls model showed that an average of four studies is needed to reveal 50% of the PSR expected for an anuran host (Table 1). Although, it is important to remember that our dataset, and therefore our predictions, are based in all kinds of studies, including parasite taxonomic reports. Even so, host size is too a good predictor of PSR, and the larger the anuran the richer its parasite fauna is expected to be (Fig 4). Host range, on the other hand, was not significantly related to PSR (Table 1), indicating that larger geographic range of the host does not imply in richer parasite fauna in anurans.

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus