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How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Barplot of helminth parasite species reported to different anuran families.White bars show the number of anuran species surveyed, color bars show the amount (log transformed) of helminth parasites reported for each host family.
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pone.0140577.g002: Barplot of helminth parasite species reported to different anuran families.White bars show the number of anuran species surveyed, color bars show the amount (log transformed) of helminth parasites reported for each host family.

Mentions: We found helminths of the phyla Acanthocephala (two families), Platyhelminthes (two families of Cestoda, one family of Monogenea and of 19 families of Trematoda) and Nematoda (24 families). The most common helminths are nematodes, which occur in practically all host families. Parasites within this group were able to colonize all hosts lineages. Gastrointestinal roundworms of the families Cosmocercidae, Kathlaniidae, Molineidae, Physalopteridae, and lungworms of Rhabdiasidae are the most reported helminths. Trematodes are the second most diverse parasite group and occur in most anuran families, but are more linked to clades of aquatic anurans, such as Lithobates and Pseudis species (Fig 2). Acanthocephalans, cestodes and monogeneans are less common and more restricted to few anuran species (Fig 2). It is also interesting to note that parasites in groups with fewer species, such as acanthocephalans, cestodes and monogeneans, generally occurred within hosts also parasitized by nematodes and trematodes (Figs 1 and 2). We then tested and found a nested pattern in host-parasite network (NODF = 4.46, P > 0.01), indicating that specialist parasites are more commonly found in hosts with high PSR.


How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Barplot of helminth parasite species reported to different anuran families.White bars show the number of anuran species surveyed, color bars show the amount (log transformed) of helminth parasites reported for each host family.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608826&req=5

pone.0140577.g002: Barplot of helminth parasite species reported to different anuran families.White bars show the number of anuran species surveyed, color bars show the amount (log transformed) of helminth parasites reported for each host family.
Mentions: We found helminths of the phyla Acanthocephala (two families), Platyhelminthes (two families of Cestoda, one family of Monogenea and of 19 families of Trematoda) and Nematoda (24 families). The most common helminths are nematodes, which occur in practically all host families. Parasites within this group were able to colonize all hosts lineages. Gastrointestinal roundworms of the families Cosmocercidae, Kathlaniidae, Molineidae, Physalopteridae, and lungworms of Rhabdiasidae are the most reported helminths. Trematodes are the second most diverse parasite group and occur in most anuran families, but are more linked to clades of aquatic anurans, such as Lithobates and Pseudis species (Fig 2). Acanthocephalans, cestodes and monogeneans are less common and more restricted to few anuran species (Fig 2). It is also interesting to note that parasites in groups with fewer species, such as acanthocephalans, cestodes and monogeneans, generally occurred within hosts also parasitized by nematodes and trematodes (Figs 1 and 2). We then tested and found a nested pattern in host-parasite network (NODF = 4.46, P > 0.01), indicating that specialist parasites are more commonly found in hosts with high PSR.

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus