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How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interacting network of South American anuran species and helminth families.Anuran phylogeny is adapted from [23].
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pone.0140577.g001: Interacting network of South American anuran species and helminth families.Anuran phylogeny is adapted from [23].

Mentions: We compiled data of 283 helminth parasites in 180 anuran species, but only 225 helminths and 156 anurans remained after excluding non-specific reports. Nineteen host families are included. Bufonidae, Hylidae and Leptodactylidae are the most representative and account together with almost 60% of the anuran species studied for helminth parasites in South America. Moreover, these are the only host families associated with all helminth major groups (Fig 1).


How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

Campião KM, Ribas AC, Morais DH, da Silva RJ, Tavares LE - PLoS ONE (2015)

Interacting network of South American anuran species and helminth families.Anuran phylogeny is adapted from [23].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608826&req=5

pone.0140577.g001: Interacting network of South American anuran species and helminth families.Anuran phylogeny is adapted from [23].
Mentions: We compiled data of 283 helminth parasites in 180 anuran species, but only 225 helminths and 156 anurans remained after excluding non-specific reports. Nineteen host families are included. Bufonidae, Hylidae and Leptodactylidae are the most representative and account together with almost 60% of the anuran species studied for helminth parasites in South America. Moreover, these are the only host families associated with all helminth major groups (Fig 1).

Bottom Line: Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR.However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity.Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus