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Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers.

Horr NK, Di Luca M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval.No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals.Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Robotics, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simulation of PSE values according to a nonlinear clock model.Observed and simulated PSE values. In Experiment 1 simulated PSE values are the mean over 1000 repetitions. In Experiment 2 there is only one simulated PSE value due to the deterministic temporal distribution. The x-axes represent the different comparison conditions as they were in the experiment. Error bars for observed PSE values are S.E.M.
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pone.0141018.g005: Simulation of PSE values according to a nonlinear clock model.Observed and simulated PSE values. In Experiment 1 simulated PSE values are the mean over 1000 repetitions. In Experiment 2 there is only one simulated PSE value due to the deterministic temporal distribution. The x-axes represent the different comparison conditions as they were in the experiment. Error bars for observed PSE values are S.E.M.

Mentions: The PSE value is obtained by setting either and thus or vice versa. Fig 5 shows the PSE values obtained for the different rhythms. In Experiment 1 we simulated the anisochronous intervals by drawing the mean over 1000 random samples. In Experiment 2 sampling is not necessary as the timing of the filler stimuli is completely determined. In general, the simulated PSE values from Experiment 1 and 2 indicate an underestimation of random and an overestimation of isochronous intervals as compared to rhythmic intervals. They further show a general tendency of a decrease in perceived duration with rhythmic groups containing more stimuli. The results of the simulation have a pattern similar to the observed data. There is no significant difference between observed and simulated PSE values between any of the groups in Experiment 1 (Bonferroni-corrected one-sample t-tests against simulated value, p>1) and Experiment 2 (Bonferroni-corrected one-sample t-test against simulated value for group-of-2, t(23) = 1.9, p = 0.28, all others p>1). The model prediction of an ovestimation of perceived duration for rhythmic intervals as compared to anisochronous intervals is in line with the results of Experiment 1. However, the predicted overestimation of duration for isochronous over rhythmic intervals is not confirmed by the results of Experiment 2. Experiment 1 shows no differential distortions between rhythmic conditions, whereas the results of Experiment 2 are in line with the predictions that rhythms composed of groups with fewer stimuli should be perceived to last longer.


Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers.

Horr NK, Di Luca M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Simulation of PSE values according to a nonlinear clock model.Observed and simulated PSE values. In Experiment 1 simulated PSE values are the mean over 1000 repetitions. In Experiment 2 there is only one simulated PSE value due to the deterministic temporal distribution. The x-axes represent the different comparison conditions as they were in the experiment. Error bars for observed PSE values are S.E.M.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608791&req=5

pone.0141018.g005: Simulation of PSE values according to a nonlinear clock model.Observed and simulated PSE values. In Experiment 1 simulated PSE values are the mean over 1000 repetitions. In Experiment 2 there is only one simulated PSE value due to the deterministic temporal distribution. The x-axes represent the different comparison conditions as they were in the experiment. Error bars for observed PSE values are S.E.M.
Mentions: The PSE value is obtained by setting either and thus or vice versa. Fig 5 shows the PSE values obtained for the different rhythms. In Experiment 1 we simulated the anisochronous intervals by drawing the mean over 1000 random samples. In Experiment 2 sampling is not necessary as the timing of the filler stimuli is completely determined. In general, the simulated PSE values from Experiment 1 and 2 indicate an underestimation of random and an overestimation of isochronous intervals as compared to rhythmic intervals. They further show a general tendency of a decrease in perceived duration with rhythmic groups containing more stimuli. The results of the simulation have a pattern similar to the observed data. There is no significant difference between observed and simulated PSE values between any of the groups in Experiment 1 (Bonferroni-corrected one-sample t-tests against simulated value, p>1) and Experiment 2 (Bonferroni-corrected one-sample t-test against simulated value for group-of-2, t(23) = 1.9, p = 0.28, all others p>1). The model prediction of an ovestimation of perceived duration for rhythmic intervals as compared to anisochronous intervals is in line with the results of Experiment 1. However, the predicted overestimation of duration for isochronous over rhythmic intervals is not confirmed by the results of Experiment 2. Experiment 1 shows no differential distortions between rhythmic conditions, whereas the results of Experiment 2 are in line with the predictions that rhythms composed of groups with fewer stimuli should be perceived to last longer.

Bottom Line: One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval.No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals.Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Robotics, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus