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Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment.

Rzezak P, Squarzoni P, Duran FL, de Toledo Ferraz Alves T, Tamashiro-Duran J, Bottino CM, Ribeiz S, Lotufo PA, Menezes PR, Scazufca M, Busatto GF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10).These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects.The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.

No MeSH data available.


Between-group differences in the pattern of linear correlation between GM volume and age.Results from the inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating within-group correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education samples. Foci of significance were overlaid on axial brain slices spatially normalized into an approximation to the Tailarach and Tournoux stereotactic atlas (1998). The numbers associated with each frame represent standard coordinates in the z-axis, indicated in MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute). a) One cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons); b) trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging in the low education than the high education group in the left frontal dorsal region (p<0.10, FWE-corrected). Details for each cluster are provided in Table 2 including coordinates of voxels of maximal statistical significance and their peak Z-score; L = left; R = right.
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pone.0140945.g001: Between-group differences in the pattern of linear correlation between GM volume and age.Results from the inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating within-group correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education samples. Foci of significance were overlaid on axial brain slices spatially normalized into an approximation to the Tailarach and Tournoux stereotactic atlas (1998). The numbers associated with each frame represent standard coordinates in the z-axis, indicated in MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute). a) One cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons); b) trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging in the low education than the high education group in the left frontal dorsal region (p<0.10, FWE-corrected). Details for each cluster are provided in Table 2 including coordinates of voxels of maximal statistical significance and their peak Z-score; L = left; R = right.

Mentions: The inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education groups revealed no foci of significant interactions in the whole-brain voxelwise analysis, when FWE correction for multiple comparisons was applied. In the SVC analyses, one cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (Table 2, Fig 1a). A tendency toward significance was observed in the left frontal dorsal region, with the low education group showing a trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging than the high education group (Table 2, Fig 1b).


Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment.

Rzezak P, Squarzoni P, Duran FL, de Toledo Ferraz Alves T, Tamashiro-Duran J, Bottino CM, Ribeiz S, Lotufo PA, Menezes PR, Scazufca M, Busatto GF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Between-group differences in the pattern of linear correlation between GM volume and age.Results from the inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating within-group correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education samples. Foci of significance were overlaid on axial brain slices spatially normalized into an approximation to the Tailarach and Tournoux stereotactic atlas (1998). The numbers associated with each frame represent standard coordinates in the z-axis, indicated in MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute). a) One cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons); b) trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging in the low education than the high education group in the left frontal dorsal region (p<0.10, FWE-corrected). Details for each cluster are provided in Table 2 including coordinates of voxels of maximal statistical significance and their peak Z-score; L = left; R = right.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608774&req=5

pone.0140945.g001: Between-group differences in the pattern of linear correlation between GM volume and age.Results from the inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating within-group correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education samples. Foci of significance were overlaid on axial brain slices spatially normalized into an approximation to the Tailarach and Tournoux stereotactic atlas (1998). The numbers associated with each frame represent standard coordinates in the z-axis, indicated in MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute). a) One cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons); b) trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging in the low education than the high education group in the left frontal dorsal region (p<0.10, FWE-corrected). Details for each cluster are provided in Table 2 including coordinates of voxels of maximal statistical significance and their peak Z-score; L = left; R = right.
Mentions: The inclusion of “group status” as a predictor variable in the analysis investigating correlations between rGM volumes and age across the High and Low education groups revealed no foci of significant interactions in the whole-brain voxelwise analysis, when FWE correction for multiple comparisons was applied. In the SVC analyses, one cluster of significant relative loss with aging in low education elders compared with high education subjects was detected in the left anterior cingulate cortex (Table 2, Fig 1a). A tendency toward significance was observed in the left frontal dorsal region, with the low education group showing a trend towards more pronounced direct correlation between rGM and aging than the high education group (Table 2, Fig 1b).

Bottom Line: When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10).These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects.The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.

No MeSH data available.