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Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis and Usefulness of Indirect Diagnostic Tests in School-Age Children in Cubal, Central Angola.

Bocanegra C, Gallego S, Mendioroz J, Moreno M, Sulleiro E, Salvador F, Sikaleta N, Nindia A, Tchipita D, Joromba M, Kavaya S, Sánchez Montalvá A, López T, Molina I - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination.Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection.Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Program for Infectious Diseases Drassanes-Vall d'Hebron. PROSICS Barcelona, Spain/Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz, Cubal, Angola.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Schistosomiasis remains a public health major problem and little is known in many areas, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Objectives: To assess the burden and risk factors of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasitic helminthes in the children of Cubal, Angola, and to compare different diagnostic approaches for urinary schistosomiasis under field conditions.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Urine and faeces samples of school children were microscopically studied. A random sample of children was obtained from an alphabetically arranged list of children, taking one of two children. Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination. Possible risk factors for the infection were sex, age, distance to the river and previous treatment with praziquantel; the assessment was performed using Chi-square test.

Results: A total of 785 (61.18%) children showed S. haematobium eggs in urine; children living within 500 meters from the river had a higher odds for infection: Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45-2.7 CI 95%); urine dipstick showed sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 61.3%, with a positive predictive value; colorimetric test showed sensitivity of 52.5%, specificity of 74.6% and a positive predictive value of 77%. Proteinuria was present in 653 (51.1%) children, being more frequent in children with S. haematobium in urine (75.2%); 32 of 191 stool samples (16%) showed the presence of other intestinal parasites and 8 (4%) for S. haematobium.

Conclusions: Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in our study area is much higher than the national average, considering it as a high-risk community. Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection. Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost. Proteinuria was a common finding, probably showing an early structural damage due to schistosomiasis in this group of children.

No MeSH data available.


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Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis considering 13 distinct neighborhoods and their relationship to the sources of water.
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pntd.0004055.g001: Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis considering 13 distinct neighborhoods and their relationship to the sources of water.

Mentions: Seven hundred and eighty five children were considered to be infected by S. haematobium. A crude assessment of prevalence of schistosomiasis infection in the school age population of Cubal considering only the samples analysed was 61.18% (CI 95%; 58.4–63.9). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in each neighbourhood of the city of Cubal is shown on Fig 1. As S.haematobium eggs were found by microscopy in 15.5% of the samples with three previous negative tests, the true prevalence can be as high as 63.5% if the distribution for negative indirect tests is maintained. No statistical differences were found on the distribution of the infection by sex, age or previous treatment with praziquantel. Proximity to a source of water was associated with an increased likelihood of infection (Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45–2.70) p < 0.001). These data are shown in Table 1.


Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis and Usefulness of Indirect Diagnostic Tests in School-Age Children in Cubal, Central Angola.

Bocanegra C, Gallego S, Mendioroz J, Moreno M, Sulleiro E, Salvador F, Sikaleta N, Nindia A, Tchipita D, Joromba M, Kavaya S, Sánchez Montalvá A, López T, Molina I - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis considering 13 distinct neighborhoods and their relationship to the sources of water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608768&req=5

pntd.0004055.g001: Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis considering 13 distinct neighborhoods and their relationship to the sources of water.
Mentions: Seven hundred and eighty five children were considered to be infected by S. haematobium. A crude assessment of prevalence of schistosomiasis infection in the school age population of Cubal considering only the samples analysed was 61.18% (CI 95%; 58.4–63.9). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in each neighbourhood of the city of Cubal is shown on Fig 1. As S.haematobium eggs were found by microscopy in 15.5% of the samples with three previous negative tests, the true prevalence can be as high as 63.5% if the distribution for negative indirect tests is maintained. No statistical differences were found on the distribution of the infection by sex, age or previous treatment with praziquantel. Proximity to a source of water was associated with an increased likelihood of infection (Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45–2.70) p < 0.001). These data are shown in Table 1.

Bottom Line: Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination.Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection.Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Special Program for Infectious Diseases Drassanes-Vall d'Hebron. PROSICS Barcelona, Spain/Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz, Cubal, Angola.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Schistosomiasis remains a public health major problem and little is known in many areas, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Objectives: To assess the burden and risk factors of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasitic helminthes in the children of Cubal, Angola, and to compare different diagnostic approaches for urinary schistosomiasis under field conditions.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Urine and faeces samples of school children were microscopically studied. A random sample of children was obtained from an alphabetically arranged list of children, taking one of two children. Urine dipstick, colorimetric test and macrohaematuria were considered as indirect diagnostic methods and compared to direct urine examination. Possible risk factors for the infection were sex, age, distance to the river and previous treatment with praziquantel; the assessment was performed using Chi-square test.

Results: A total of 785 (61.18%) children showed S. haematobium eggs in urine; children living within 500 meters from the river had a higher odds for infection: Odds ratio 1.97 (1.45-2.7 CI 95%); urine dipstick showed sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 61.3%, with a positive predictive value; colorimetric test showed sensitivity of 52.5%, specificity of 74.6% and a positive predictive value of 77%. Proteinuria was present in 653 (51.1%) children, being more frequent in children with S. haematobium in urine (75.2%); 32 of 191 stool samples (16%) showed the presence of other intestinal parasites and 8 (4%) for S. haematobium.

Conclusions: Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in our study area is much higher than the national average, considering it as a high-risk community. Proximity to a source of water was a risk factor for the infection. Indirect tests, as urine dipstick and colorimetric test, were useful tools for diagnosis, due to ease of use and low cost. Proteinuria was a common finding, probably showing an early structural damage due to schistosomiasis in this group of children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus