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The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic relationship between PAH and changes in the fatty acid profile of Cyperus in the phytoremediation systems.Schematic proposal for the changes observed in the fatty acid profile of organs from Cyperus laxus cultivated in the phytoremediation systems of soils from the oil aged contaminated sites. The main type of hydrocarbons found in the aged oil spill impacted sites was PAH25. Some of these PAH could be moved through the plant organs by the apoplastic route, promoting a general increase in the content of long chain fatty acids (C18 and C20-C24), mainly in the root; where may negatively affect the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf. In leaf and root tissues the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly change the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic (plastidic) and eukaryotic (ER) fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Instead, the major cumulative content of long chain and the C18 chain fatty acids was the result of the prevalence of higher and similar amounts of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3N3, in conjunction with low or absent levels of C16:1, C16:2, and C16:3. This suggest that this Cyperus species might direct the intracellular fatty acid metabolic flux to reinforce cellular structures such as plasma membrane (MP), cutine, suberine, and epicuticular wax (Ew), to protect the integrity of the whole plant. Such changes in the fatty acid metabolic flux should involve an important biochemical and physiological adjustment of the plant as response to the hydrocarbons presence. These adjustments may be commonly auto-regulated by metabolic-flexible nodes submerged in the metabolic map of the plant.
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pone.0140103.g005: Schematic relationship between PAH and changes in the fatty acid profile of Cyperus in the phytoremediation systems.Schematic proposal for the changes observed in the fatty acid profile of organs from Cyperus laxus cultivated in the phytoremediation systems of soils from the oil aged contaminated sites. The main type of hydrocarbons found in the aged oil spill impacted sites was PAH25. Some of these PAH could be moved through the plant organs by the apoplastic route, promoting a general increase in the content of long chain fatty acids (C18 and C20-C24), mainly in the root; where may negatively affect the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf. In leaf and root tissues the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly change the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic (plastidic) and eukaryotic (ER) fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Instead, the major cumulative content of long chain and the C18 chain fatty acids was the result of the prevalence of higher and similar amounts of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3N3, in conjunction with low or absent levels of C16:1, C16:2, and C16:3. This suggest that this Cyperus species might direct the intracellular fatty acid metabolic flux to reinforce cellular structures such as plasma membrane (MP), cutine, suberine, and epicuticular wax (Ew), to protect the integrity of the whole plant. Such changes in the fatty acid metabolic flux should involve an important biochemical and physiological adjustment of the plant as response to the hydrocarbons presence. These adjustments may be commonly auto-regulated by metabolic-flexible nodes submerged in the metabolic map of the plant.

Mentions: As outlined in Fig 5, the above results suggest that in leaf and in root the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly affect the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Therefore, for plants grown in contaminated soil, the increment in the fatty acid content observed in roots in association with a concomitant decrement of total fatty acids in corm and leaf, suggests that the hydrocarbon may have negatively affected the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf, and that the metabolism might have been redirected to the biosynthesis of wax and suberin monomers giving the root cells a higher resistance to the xenobiotic presence. However, the way that the translocation process of the carbohydrates from the photosynthetic tissue to the root tissue was affected is uncertain, and therefore the increase of the fatty acid level in the root by the hydrocarbons’ presence deserves further study. Nevertheless, these results imply that the observed changes in the fatty acids profile were dependent on both hydrocarbons amount and the ability of C. laxus to adapt the intrinsic cellular lipidic metabolism of each organ in response to the environmental challenge, such as has been reported for other plant species grown under stress conditions [40,41]. Such metabolic adaptation may differentially enhance also the production of uncommon compounds, such as the observation of long chain fatty acids and the presence of branched and uneven carbon chain fatty acids. Long chain fatty acids (C20-C34) are common components or precursors of cellular structures, such as membranes, cuticle, suberine, and waxes [40, 42, 43]. Variations in their profile and content in plants grown in contaminated soils is congruent with reports that suggest that important biochemical and physiological changes at cellular, organ and whole plant levels are involved in the response to the presence of weathered hydrocarbons such as PAH in phytoremediation systems [44–46]. However, because phytoremediation is a very complex system involving interactions between xenobiotics, microbes, plants, and soil, alternative experimental procedures are needed to evaluate the involvement of specific PAH uptake regarding the fatty acid content and profile by plants without microbial interactions.


The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Schematic relationship between PAH and changes in the fatty acid profile of Cyperus in the phytoremediation systems.Schematic proposal for the changes observed in the fatty acid profile of organs from Cyperus laxus cultivated in the phytoremediation systems of soils from the oil aged contaminated sites. The main type of hydrocarbons found in the aged oil spill impacted sites was PAH25. Some of these PAH could be moved through the plant organs by the apoplastic route, promoting a general increase in the content of long chain fatty acids (C18 and C20-C24), mainly in the root; where may negatively affect the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf. In leaf and root tissues the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly change the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic (plastidic) and eukaryotic (ER) fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Instead, the major cumulative content of long chain and the C18 chain fatty acids was the result of the prevalence of higher and similar amounts of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3N3, in conjunction with low or absent levels of C16:1, C16:2, and C16:3. This suggest that this Cyperus species might direct the intracellular fatty acid metabolic flux to reinforce cellular structures such as plasma membrane (MP), cutine, suberine, and epicuticular wax (Ew), to protect the integrity of the whole plant. Such changes in the fatty acid metabolic flux should involve an important biochemical and physiological adjustment of the plant as response to the hydrocarbons presence. These adjustments may be commonly auto-regulated by metabolic-flexible nodes submerged in the metabolic map of the plant.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608714&req=5

pone.0140103.g005: Schematic relationship between PAH and changes in the fatty acid profile of Cyperus in the phytoremediation systems.Schematic proposal for the changes observed in the fatty acid profile of organs from Cyperus laxus cultivated in the phytoremediation systems of soils from the oil aged contaminated sites. The main type of hydrocarbons found in the aged oil spill impacted sites was PAH25. Some of these PAH could be moved through the plant organs by the apoplastic route, promoting a general increase in the content of long chain fatty acids (C18 and C20-C24), mainly in the root; where may negatively affect the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf. In leaf and root tissues the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly change the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic (plastidic) and eukaryotic (ER) fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Instead, the major cumulative content of long chain and the C18 chain fatty acids was the result of the prevalence of higher and similar amounts of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3N3, in conjunction with low or absent levels of C16:1, C16:2, and C16:3. This suggest that this Cyperus species might direct the intracellular fatty acid metabolic flux to reinforce cellular structures such as plasma membrane (MP), cutine, suberine, and epicuticular wax (Ew), to protect the integrity of the whole plant. Such changes in the fatty acid metabolic flux should involve an important biochemical and physiological adjustment of the plant as response to the hydrocarbons presence. These adjustments may be commonly auto-regulated by metabolic-flexible nodes submerged in the metabolic map of the plant.
Mentions: As outlined in Fig 5, the above results suggest that in leaf and in root the hydrocarbons’ presence did not significantly affect the partition of the carbon flux toward any of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, keeping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic fatty acid pathways working in synchrony to maintain a balanced growth. Therefore, for plants grown in contaminated soil, the increment in the fatty acid content observed in roots in association with a concomitant decrement of total fatty acids in corm and leaf, suggests that the hydrocarbon may have negatively affected the translocation process of the micronutrients from the root to the corm and the leaf, and that the metabolism might have been redirected to the biosynthesis of wax and suberin monomers giving the root cells a higher resistance to the xenobiotic presence. However, the way that the translocation process of the carbohydrates from the photosynthetic tissue to the root tissue was affected is uncertain, and therefore the increase of the fatty acid level in the root by the hydrocarbons’ presence deserves further study. Nevertheless, these results imply that the observed changes in the fatty acids profile were dependent on both hydrocarbons amount and the ability of C. laxus to adapt the intrinsic cellular lipidic metabolism of each organ in response to the environmental challenge, such as has been reported for other plant species grown under stress conditions [40,41]. Such metabolic adaptation may differentially enhance also the production of uncommon compounds, such as the observation of long chain fatty acids and the presence of branched and uneven carbon chain fatty acids. Long chain fatty acids (C20-C34) are common components or precursors of cellular structures, such as membranes, cuticle, suberine, and waxes [40, 42, 43]. Variations in their profile and content in plants grown in contaminated soils is congruent with reports that suggest that important biochemical and physiological changes at cellular, organ and whole plant levels are involved in the response to the presence of weathered hydrocarbons such as PAH in phytoremediation systems [44–46]. However, because phytoremediation is a very complex system involving interactions between xenobiotics, microbes, plants, and soil, alternative experimental procedures are needed to evaluate the involvement of specific PAH uptake regarding the fatty acid content and profile by plants without microbial interactions.

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus