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The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GC Chromatograms of Cyperus laxus leaf fatty acid extracts.Fatty acid profile in lipid extracts from the leaf of Cyperus laxus control plants cultivated in soil from the unimpacted site (SL) and from plants harvested from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205), compared to a mixture of true fatty acid derivatives (SUPELCO 37 Fame Mix) used as reference compounds.
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pone.0140103.g002: GC Chromatograms of Cyperus laxus leaf fatty acid extracts.Fatty acid profile in lipid extracts from the leaf of Cyperus laxus control plants cultivated in soil from the unimpacted site (SL) and from plants harvested from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205), compared to a mixture of true fatty acid derivatives (SUPELCO 37 Fame Mix) used as reference compounds.

Mentions: Fig 2 shows the fatty acid profile of lipid extracts of leaf from plants cultivated in uncontaminated soil (SL) and plants from the phytoremediation system of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205) with respect to a mixture of true fatty acids as reference. Approximately 9 fatty acids were clearly identified in the leaf extracts from plants cultivated in the uncontaminated SL with a major occurrence of palmitic acid (C16:0), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids. The high prevalence of C18:3n3 and the absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3) in this leaf extract should be noted. These results are consistent with reports for the fatty acid composition of leaf from other Cyperaceae species, such as Carex sp. [31] and Cyperus alternifolius [15], and demonstrate for the first time that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In C18:3 plants, part of the C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acids product of the plastidic prokaryotic fatty acid synthesis are exported to the cytoplasm and incorporated into the endoplasmic reticulum lipids and the polyunsaturated fatty acids through the eukaryotic pathway of glycerolipid synthesis [15,32]. In this work, the presence of hydrocarbons correlated positively with the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids in leaf (Table 1): the saturated/unsaturated ratio in leaf changed from 1.04 in SL to 0.87 in S205. In contrast, it has been reported that fatty acid desaturation in plants and cyanobacteria are inversely correlated with temperature, and was suggested that such increment in unsaturated fatty acid fraction might improves the fluidity of membrane [32].


The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

GC Chromatograms of Cyperus laxus leaf fatty acid extracts.Fatty acid profile in lipid extracts from the leaf of Cyperus laxus control plants cultivated in soil from the unimpacted site (SL) and from plants harvested from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205), compared to a mixture of true fatty acid derivatives (SUPELCO 37 Fame Mix) used as reference compounds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608714&req=5

pone.0140103.g002: GC Chromatograms of Cyperus laxus leaf fatty acid extracts.Fatty acid profile in lipid extracts from the leaf of Cyperus laxus control plants cultivated in soil from the unimpacted site (SL) and from plants harvested from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205), compared to a mixture of true fatty acid derivatives (SUPELCO 37 Fame Mix) used as reference compounds.
Mentions: Fig 2 shows the fatty acid profile of lipid extracts of leaf from plants cultivated in uncontaminated soil (SL) and plants from the phytoremediation system of soil from the oil spill-impacted site containing 340 g/Kg THC (S205) with respect to a mixture of true fatty acids as reference. Approximately 9 fatty acids were clearly identified in the leaf extracts from plants cultivated in the uncontaminated SL with a major occurrence of palmitic acid (C16:0), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids. The high prevalence of C18:3n3 and the absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3) in this leaf extract should be noted. These results are consistent with reports for the fatty acid composition of leaf from other Cyperaceae species, such as Carex sp. [31] and Cyperus alternifolius [15], and demonstrate for the first time that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In C18:3 plants, part of the C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acids product of the plastidic prokaryotic fatty acid synthesis are exported to the cytoplasm and incorporated into the endoplasmic reticulum lipids and the polyunsaturated fatty acids through the eukaryotic pathway of glycerolipid synthesis [15,32]. In this work, the presence of hydrocarbons correlated positively with the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids in leaf (Table 1): the saturated/unsaturated ratio in leaf changed from 1.04 in SL to 0.87 in S205. In contrast, it has been reported that fatty acid desaturation in plants and cyanobacteria are inversely correlated with temperature, and was suggested that such increment in unsaturated fatty acid fraction might improves the fluidity of membrane [32].

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus