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The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cyperus laxus plants and organs.Pioneer Cyperus laxus plants found in aged oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (a), their immature (b) and mature (c) inflorescence, and their root system with corms and rhizome (d and e, respectively). Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the aged oil spill-impacted site containing 0–340 g THC/Kg soil were harvested and washed with cold distilled water (f) and the whole leaf (L), the basal corm (C), and the root (R) were separated and used for fatty acid analyses.
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pone.0140103.g001: Cyperus laxus plants and organs.Pioneer Cyperus laxus plants found in aged oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (a), their immature (b) and mature (c) inflorescence, and their root system with corms and rhizome (d and e, respectively). Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the aged oil spill-impacted site containing 0–340 g THC/Kg soil were harvested and washed with cold distilled water (f) and the whole leaf (L), the basal corm (C), and the root (R) were separated and used for fatty acid analyses.

Mentions: Seeds of Cyperus laxus were harvested from a three-year greenhouse phytoremediation system established with native plants from long-term oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (Fig 1), as previously reported [13,25]. In addition, seeds harvested from plants growing in soil collected from a close unimpacted site (SL) were used for the uncontaminated control system. The seeds were sown in pots (60x20x20 cm) with soil from the control unimpacted site (SL), or with soil from the long-term oil spill-impacted sites containing 16 g/Kg (S163), 140 g/Kg (SSR), and 340 g/Kg (S205) total hydrocarbons (THC), according to a three-stage nested experimental design with five levels of hydrocarbons content and three to five replicates (Table 1). The pot systems were cultivated under greenhouse conditions at 32°C/12°C day/night, and flooded daily with distilled water. Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from each experimental treatment were harvested and washed with cold distilled water. The whole root, basal corm, and leaf tissue were separated (Fig 1D and 1F). Whole organs from individual plants were then ground under liquid nitrogen for lipid extraction and fatty acid analyses. Additionally, freshly collected plants were used to estimate the humidity content in the organs using a thermobalance (Kern MLB 50–3, Kern & Sohn GmbH, Germany).


The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

Rivera Casado NA, Montes Horcasitas Mdel C, Rodríguez Vázquez R, Esparza García FJ, Pérez Vargas J, Ariza Castolo A, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Gómez Guzmán O, Calva Calva G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cyperus laxus plants and organs.Pioneer Cyperus laxus plants found in aged oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (a), their immature (b) and mature (c) inflorescence, and their root system with corms and rhizome (d and e, respectively). Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the aged oil spill-impacted site containing 0–340 g THC/Kg soil were harvested and washed with cold distilled water (f) and the whole leaf (L), the basal corm (C), and the root (R) were separated and used for fatty acid analyses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608714&req=5

pone.0140103.g001: Cyperus laxus plants and organs.Pioneer Cyperus laxus plants found in aged oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (a), their immature (b) and mature (c) inflorescence, and their root system with corms and rhizome (d and e, respectively). Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from the phytoremediation systems of soil from the aged oil spill-impacted site containing 0–340 g THC/Kg soil were harvested and washed with cold distilled water (f) and the whole leaf (L), the basal corm (C), and the root (R) were separated and used for fatty acid analyses.
Mentions: Seeds of Cyperus laxus were harvested from a three-year greenhouse phytoremediation system established with native plants from long-term oil spill-impacted sites located in the tropical region of Tabasco, México (Fig 1), as previously reported [13,25]. In addition, seeds harvested from plants growing in soil collected from a close unimpacted site (SL) were used for the uncontaminated control system. The seeds were sown in pots (60x20x20 cm) with soil from the control unimpacted site (SL), or with soil from the long-term oil spill-impacted sites containing 16 g/Kg (S163), 140 g/Kg (SSR), and 340 g/Kg (S205) total hydrocarbons (THC), according to a three-stage nested experimental design with five levels of hydrocarbons content and three to five replicates (Table 1). The pot systems were cultivated under greenhouse conditions at 32°C/12°C day/night, and flooded daily with distilled water. Individual plants of 14–15 weeks age from each experimental treatment were harvested and washed with cold distilled water. The whole root, basal corm, and leaf tissue were separated (Fig 1D and 1F). Whole organs from individual plants were then ground under liquid nitrogen for lipid extraction and fatty acid analyses. Additionally, freshly collected plants were used to estimate the humidity content in the organs using a thermobalance (Kern MLB 50–3, Kern & Sohn GmbH, Germany).

Bottom Line: In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root.Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf.These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D. F, México.

ABSTRACT
The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus