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Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

Hayashi A, Nomura H, Mochizuki R, Ohnuma A, Kimpara T, Suzuki K, Mori E - Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks.For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant.Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji).

Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks.

Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant.

Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Samples of the 6 types of writing errors. (1) PSE: phonologically same Kanji error; the target word and the error have the same phonetic value, but the latter is orthographically different from the former and has no meaning as a two-character Kanji word. (2) PDE: phonologically different Kanji error; the target word and the error have different phonetic and orthographic values. When the participant did not respond or stopped after writing one or two strokes, we divided the no response scores into two types of errors, as follows: (3) CE = cued error; given a part of a target Kanji character, the subject could write the whole character. (4) RE = recall error; given a part of a Kanji character, the subject could not write the character. (5) PE = peripheral error; an ill-formed or illegible Kanji character. (6) MPE = minor peripheral error; omitting or adding one or two strokes of Kanji.
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Figure 1: Samples of the 6 types of writing errors. (1) PSE: phonologically same Kanji error; the target word and the error have the same phonetic value, but the latter is orthographically different from the former and has no meaning as a two-character Kanji word. (2) PDE: phonologically different Kanji error; the target word and the error have different phonetic and orthographic values. When the participant did not respond or stopped after writing one or two strokes, we divided the no response scores into two types of errors, as follows: (3) CE = cued error; given a part of a target Kanji character, the subject could write the whole character. (4) RE = recall error; given a part of a Kanji character, the subject could not write the character. (5) PE = peripheral error; an ill-formed or illegible Kanji character. (6) MPE = minor peripheral error; omitting or adding one or two strokes of Kanji.

Mentions: We classified the errors in the Kanji dictation task into 6 types (see examples in fig. 1) for each character. Although we used two-character Kanji words as stimuli (50 words), the scoring was performed for each Kanji character. The error types were as follows:


Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

Hayashi A, Nomura H, Mochizuki R, Ohnuma A, Kimpara T, Suzuki K, Mori E - Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra (2015)

Samples of the 6 types of writing errors. (1) PSE: phonologically same Kanji error; the target word and the error have the same phonetic value, but the latter is orthographically different from the former and has no meaning as a two-character Kanji word. (2) PDE: phonologically different Kanji error; the target word and the error have different phonetic and orthographic values. When the participant did not respond or stopped after writing one or two strokes, we divided the no response scores into two types of errors, as follows: (3) CE = cued error; given a part of a target Kanji character, the subject could write the whole character. (4) RE = recall error; given a part of a Kanji character, the subject could not write the character. (5) PE = peripheral error; an ill-formed or illegible Kanji character. (6) MPE = minor peripheral error; omitting or adding one or two strokes of Kanji.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608664&req=5

Figure 1: Samples of the 6 types of writing errors. (1) PSE: phonologically same Kanji error; the target word and the error have the same phonetic value, but the latter is orthographically different from the former and has no meaning as a two-character Kanji word. (2) PDE: phonologically different Kanji error; the target word and the error have different phonetic and orthographic values. When the participant did not respond or stopped after writing one or two strokes, we divided the no response scores into two types of errors, as follows: (3) CE = cued error; given a part of a target Kanji character, the subject could write the whole character. (4) RE = recall error; given a part of a Kanji character, the subject could not write the character. (5) PE = peripheral error; an ill-formed or illegible Kanji character. (6) MPE = minor peripheral error; omitting or adding one or two strokes of Kanji.
Mentions: We classified the errors in the Kanji dictation task into 6 types (see examples in fig. 1) for each character. Although we used two-character Kanji words as stimuli (50 words), the scoring was performed for each Kanji character. The error types were as follows:

Bottom Line: Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks.For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant.Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background/aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji).

Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks.

Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant.

Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus