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Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Multivariate risk factor analysis for animal tungiasis.Variables were analyzed by logistic regression and were eliminated stepwise to obtain an optimized model in terms of a minimal AIC value. Data are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. (A), (B) and (C) show risks factor analysis for the presence of tungiasis in a household in any animal species, pigs and dogs, respectively. *** p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p< 0.05. When confidence intervals were very wide, they were not plotted.
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pntd.0004126.g007: Multivariate risk factor analysis for animal tungiasis.Variables were analyzed by logistic regression and were eliminated stepwise to obtain an optimized model in terms of a minimal AIC value. Data are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. (A), (B) and (C) show risks factor analysis for the presence of tungiasis in a household in any animal species, pigs and dogs, respectively. *** p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p< 0.05. When confidence intervals were very wide, they were not plotted.

Mentions: In multivariate analysis, presence of animal tungiasis in households was strongly influenced by presence of human tungiasis (OR = 6.5, p < 0.0001) and presence of pigs (OR = 5.9, p = 0.0002) as illustrated in Fig 7A. In addition, the number of animal species reared in the household (OR = 1.6, p = 0.02) and the size of the homestead (OR = 1.4, p = 0.02) significantly increased the odds detecting animal tungiasis among households. Slightly but non-significant protective effect was observed in association with the presence of chicken and goats in the households. However, the overall model had a poor to moderate fit (McFadden pseudo R2 = 0.25).


Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Multivariate risk factor analysis for animal tungiasis.Variables were analyzed by logistic regression and were eliminated stepwise to obtain an optimized model in terms of a minimal AIC value. Data are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. (A), (B) and (C) show risks factor analysis for the presence of tungiasis in a household in any animal species, pigs and dogs, respectively. *** p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p< 0.05. When confidence intervals were very wide, they were not plotted.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608570&req=5

pntd.0004126.g007: Multivariate risk factor analysis for animal tungiasis.Variables were analyzed by logistic regression and were eliminated stepwise to obtain an optimized model in terms of a minimal AIC value. Data are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. (A), (B) and (C) show risks factor analysis for the presence of tungiasis in a household in any animal species, pigs and dogs, respectively. *** p < 0.001; **, p < 0.01; *, p< 0.05. When confidence intervals were very wide, they were not plotted.
Mentions: In multivariate analysis, presence of animal tungiasis in households was strongly influenced by presence of human tungiasis (OR = 6.5, p < 0.0001) and presence of pigs (OR = 5.9, p = 0.0002) as illustrated in Fig 7A. In addition, the number of animal species reared in the household (OR = 1.6, p = 0.02) and the size of the homestead (OR = 1.4, p = 0.02) significantly increased the odds detecting animal tungiasis among households. Slightly but non-significant protective effect was observed in association with the presence of chicken and goats in the households. However, the overall model had a poor to moderate fit (McFadden pseudo R2 = 0.25).

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus