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Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation between age of dogs infected with T. penetrans and the number of embedded sand fleas (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039).
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pntd.0004126.g005: Correlation between age of dogs infected with T. penetrans and the number of embedded sand fleas (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039).

Mentions: The 20 infected dogs had a total of 53 lesions of which 32 (60.4%) were viable while 21 (39.6%) were non-viable. Occasionally, it was observed that dogs bite at flea lesions and exteriorized the fleas with their teeth. Out of the 20 dogs only 2 (10%) had ≥5 lesions while the other 18 had light infections (1–4 lesions per dog). Of the total 40 lesions found on the two goat kids, 27 (67.5%) were viable while the other 13 (32.5%) were non-viable. In pigs, no correlation was observed between age and the total number of lesions (rho = 0.014, p = 0.88) but in dogs the number of lesions per dog significantly decreased with age as shown in Fig 5. (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039). The number of lesions did not differ between sexes: female median 10 (IQR 3–39) vs. male median 6 (IQR 3–30) in pigs (p = 0.37); female median 2 (IQR 2–3) vs. male median 2 (IQR 2–3) in dogs (p = 0.88).


Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Correlation between age of dogs infected with T. penetrans and the number of embedded sand fleas (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608570&req=5

pntd.0004126.g005: Correlation between age of dogs infected with T. penetrans and the number of embedded sand fleas (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039).
Mentions: The 20 infected dogs had a total of 53 lesions of which 32 (60.4%) were viable while 21 (39.6%) were non-viable. Occasionally, it was observed that dogs bite at flea lesions and exteriorized the fleas with their teeth. Out of the 20 dogs only 2 (10%) had ≥5 lesions while the other 18 had light infections (1–4 lesions per dog). Of the total 40 lesions found on the two goat kids, 27 (67.5%) were viable while the other 13 (32.5%) were non-viable. In pigs, no correlation was observed between age and the total number of lesions (rho = 0.014, p = 0.88) but in dogs the number of lesions per dog significantly decreased with age as shown in Fig 5. (rho = -0.47, p = 0.039). The number of lesions did not differ between sexes: female median 10 (IQR 3–39) vs. male median 6 (IQR 3–30) in pigs (p = 0.37); female median 2 (IQR 2–3) vs. male median 2 (IQR 2–3) in dogs (p = 0.88).

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus