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Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Age-specific prevalence of human tungiasis.Data with the same index letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different from each other in a Chi-square test with p values corrected for multiple testing according to the Bonferroni-Holm method.
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pntd.0004126.g002: Age-specific prevalence of human tungiasis.Data with the same index letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different from each other in a Chi-square test with p values corrected for multiple testing according to the Bonferroni-Holm method.

Mentions: Among humans examined for tungiasis in the 236 animal rearing households sampled, 254 (14.4%, 95% CI 12.8–16.1%) were infected but in the 57 additional households, 48 out of 382 humans (12.6%, 95% CI 9.6–16.3%) were infected (p = 0.20). Prevalences of human infections in the villages (Table 3) were significantly variable (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%; p<0.0001). The prevalence of tungiasis was significantly higher in males (n = 154, 16.9%, 95% CI 14.6–19.5%) than females (n = 100, 11.7%, 95% CI 9.7–14.0%; p = 0.001). Children (0–15 years) had a significantly higher prevalence of tungiasis than other humans above 15 years (20.3% vs. 5.5%; p<0.0001). The prevalence of human tungiasis was highest in children of 6–15 years (Fig 2). Overall, the variations in prevalence of tungiasis among age groups were statistically significant (p<0.0001). There was also a significantly higher prevalence in the two youngest age groups compared with the middle age groups and a clear peak in the age group of 6–15 years (Fig 2).


Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Age-specific prevalence of human tungiasis.Data with the same index letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different from each other in a Chi-square test with p values corrected for multiple testing according to the Bonferroni-Holm method.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608570&req=5

pntd.0004126.g002: Age-specific prevalence of human tungiasis.Data with the same index letter (a, b, c) are not significantly different from each other in a Chi-square test with p values corrected for multiple testing according to the Bonferroni-Holm method.
Mentions: Among humans examined for tungiasis in the 236 animal rearing households sampled, 254 (14.4%, 95% CI 12.8–16.1%) were infected but in the 57 additional households, 48 out of 382 humans (12.6%, 95% CI 9.6–16.3%) were infected (p = 0.20). Prevalences of human infections in the villages (Table 3) were significantly variable (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%; p<0.0001). The prevalence of tungiasis was significantly higher in males (n = 154, 16.9%, 95% CI 14.6–19.5%) than females (n = 100, 11.7%, 95% CI 9.7–14.0%; p = 0.001). Children (0–15 years) had a significantly higher prevalence of tungiasis than other humans above 15 years (20.3% vs. 5.5%; p<0.0001). The prevalence of human tungiasis was highest in children of 6–15 years (Fig 2). Overall, the variations in prevalence of tungiasis among age groups were statistically significant (p<0.0001). There was also a significantly higher prevalence in the two youngest age groups compared with the middle age groups and a clear peak in the age group of 6–15 years (Fig 2).

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus