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Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of study area and location of households with animal and/or human tungiasis.All study sites were located in the parishes Makoma, Wakawaka and Bulidha in the Bugiri district. Cases tended to cluster geographically.
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pntd.0004126.g001: Map of study area and location of households with animal and/or human tungiasis.All study sites were located in the parishes Makoma, Wakawaka and Bulidha in the Bugiri district. Cases tended to cluster geographically.

Mentions: The ten villages were; Masolya, Makoma 1, Busakira, Busano, Isakabisolo, Namungodi, Matyama and Busindha situated in Makoma parish; Kibuye and Nagongera in Wakawaka and Bulidha parishes, respectively. These were purposively selected because human tungiasis was reported to be highly prevalent by the local health personnel, a fact which was also verified during a preliminary visit. The study area and study sites with infected hosts are illustrated in Fig 1. Since there were no estimates regarding the size of the animal populations and prevalence of T. penetrans infections in the various animal species, a relatively large number of villages was included in the study. All households in the villages with at least a pig, a dog or a cat were selected for the study. All mammals accessible in the selected households were examined. Poultry were examined whenever available.


Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

Mutebi F, Krücken J, Feldmeier H, Waiswa C, Mencke N, Sentongo E, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Map of study area and location of households with animal and/or human tungiasis.All study sites were located in the parishes Makoma, Wakawaka and Bulidha in the Bugiri district. Cases tended to cluster geographically.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608570&req=5

pntd.0004126.g001: Map of study area and location of households with animal and/or human tungiasis.All study sites were located in the parishes Makoma, Wakawaka and Bulidha in the Bugiri district. Cases tended to cluster geographically.
Mentions: The ten villages were; Masolya, Makoma 1, Busakira, Busano, Isakabisolo, Namungodi, Matyama and Busindha situated in Makoma parish; Kibuye and Nagongera in Wakawaka and Bulidha parishes, respectively. These were purposively selected because human tungiasis was reported to be highly prevalent by the local health personnel, a fact which was also verified during a preliminary visit. The study area and study sites with infected hosts are illustrated in Fig 1. Since there were no estimates regarding the size of the animal populations and prevalence of T. penetrans infections in the various animal species, a relatively large number of villages was included in the study. All households in the villages with at least a pig, a dog or a cat were selected for the study. All mammals accessible in the selected households were examined. Poultry were examined whenever available.

Bottom Line: Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%).The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001).Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Bio-security, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.

Methods and findings: To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001). Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%). Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001) levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus