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Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

Ak N, Koo HC, Hamid Jan JM, Mohd Nasir MT, Tan SY, Appukutty M, Nurliyana AR, Thielecke F, Hopkins S, Ong MK, Ning C, Tee ES - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits.Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations.Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Nutrition Society of Malaysia, c/o Division of Human Nutrition, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.

Methods: This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.

Results: Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d) in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day.

Conclusion: Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Distribution of sources of whole grain intake among 1,286 Malaysian children aged 6–12 years who were whole grain consumers.The major food source of whole grain intake was ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (68.6%), followed by hot cereal (18.6%), biscuits (8.7%), bread (1.8%), others (1.6%), rice (0.6%) and pasta/noodle (0.1%).
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pone.0138247.g003: Distribution of sources of whole grain intake among 1,286 Malaysian children aged 6–12 years who were whole grain consumers.The major food source of whole grain intake was ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (68.6%), followed by hot cereal (18.6%), biscuits (8.7%), bread (1.8%), others (1.6%), rice (0.6%) and pasta/noodle (0.1%).

Mentions: Wheat was the major grain contributing to whole grain intake, providing 77.7% of the total daily whole grain intake in consumers. Oat was the second highest contributor (13.7%), followed by maize/corn (7.4%) and a minimal contribution from rice (1.2%) (Fig 2). The percentage contribution of the seven food groups to the total whole grain intake for children and adolescents who consumed whole grain are presented in Figs 3 and 4. For both children and adolescents, the major food source of whole grain intake was RTEBC (68.6% and 56.9%, respectively), followed by hot cereal (18.6% and 24.6%, respectively), biscuits (8.7% and 10.9%, respectively), bread (1.8% and 4.9%, respectively), other (1.6% and 2.0%, respectively), rice (0.6% and 0.5%, respectively) and pasta/ noodle (0.1% and 0.2%, respectively). Overall, RTEBC made a greater contribution to whole grain intakes in boys (67.4%) compared to girls (62.2%) while girls (22.0%) had a greater contribution from hot cereals than boys (18.5%). RTEBC was the major source of whole grain for all regions followed by hot cereals and biscuits with very little difference between urban and rural areas. RTEBC contributed more than 60% to whole grain intakes in Malays, Indians and Bumiputera Sabah/ Sarawak compared to only 43.4% in the Chinese. Hot cereals on the other hand contributed 36.3% to whole grain intakes in the Chinese and <22% in the other ethnic groups.


Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

Ak N, Koo HC, Hamid Jan JM, Mohd Nasir MT, Tan SY, Appukutty M, Nurliyana AR, Thielecke F, Hopkins S, Ong MK, Ning C, Tee ES - PLoS ONE (2015)

Distribution of sources of whole grain intake among 1,286 Malaysian children aged 6–12 years who were whole grain consumers.The major food source of whole grain intake was ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (68.6%), followed by hot cereal (18.6%), biscuits (8.7%), bread (1.8%), others (1.6%), rice (0.6%) and pasta/noodle (0.1%).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608561&req=5

pone.0138247.g003: Distribution of sources of whole grain intake among 1,286 Malaysian children aged 6–12 years who were whole grain consumers.The major food source of whole grain intake was ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (68.6%), followed by hot cereal (18.6%), biscuits (8.7%), bread (1.8%), others (1.6%), rice (0.6%) and pasta/noodle (0.1%).
Mentions: Wheat was the major grain contributing to whole grain intake, providing 77.7% of the total daily whole grain intake in consumers. Oat was the second highest contributor (13.7%), followed by maize/corn (7.4%) and a minimal contribution from rice (1.2%) (Fig 2). The percentage contribution of the seven food groups to the total whole grain intake for children and adolescents who consumed whole grain are presented in Figs 3 and 4. For both children and adolescents, the major food source of whole grain intake was RTEBC (68.6% and 56.9%, respectively), followed by hot cereal (18.6% and 24.6%, respectively), biscuits (8.7% and 10.9%, respectively), bread (1.8% and 4.9%, respectively), other (1.6% and 2.0%, respectively), rice (0.6% and 0.5%, respectively) and pasta/ noodle (0.1% and 0.2%, respectively). Overall, RTEBC made a greater contribution to whole grain intakes in boys (67.4%) compared to girls (62.2%) while girls (22.0%) had a greater contribution from hot cereals than boys (18.5%). RTEBC was the major source of whole grain for all regions followed by hot cereals and biscuits with very little difference between urban and rural areas. RTEBC contributed more than 60% to whole grain intakes in Malays, Indians and Bumiputera Sabah/ Sarawak compared to only 43.4% in the Chinese. Hot cereals on the other hand contributed 36.3% to whole grain intakes in the Chinese and <22% in the other ethnic groups.

Bottom Line: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits.Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations.Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Nutrition Society of Malaysia, c/o Division of Human Nutrition, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.

Methods: This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.

Results: Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d) in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day.

Conclusion: Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

No MeSH data available.