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Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

Ak N, Koo HC, Hamid Jan JM, Mohd Nasir MT, Tan SY, Appukutty M, Nurliyana AR, Thielecke F, Hopkins S, Ong MK, Ning C, Tee ES - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits.Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations.Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Nutrition Society of Malaysia, c/o Division of Human Nutrition, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.

Methods: This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.

Results: Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d) in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day.

Conclusion: Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

No MeSH data available.


Sampling procedure.†States included in each of the regions: Northern–Perlis, Kedah, Penang & Perak; Southern–Negeri Sembilan, Malacca & Johor; Central–Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya; East Coast–Kelantan, Pahang & Terengganu; East Malaysia–Sabah & Sarawak.
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pone.0138247.g001: Sampling procedure.†States included in each of the regions: Northern–Perlis, Kedah, Penang & Perak; Southern–Negeri Sembilan, Malacca & Johor; Central–Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya; East Coast–Kelantan, Pahang & Terengganu; East Malaysia–Sabah & Sarawak.

Mentions: A multistage sampling method of respondents aged 6 to 17 years was carried out, based on geographical location and ethnic group distribution. The estimated sample size was calculated based on the total population of children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 3,414,906) and 13–17 years (n = 2,521,688) in Malaysia derived from the Population and Housing Census 2010 [24]. From this census data, the percentage of children required in each of the five regions, namely Northern, Southern, East Coast, Central region and East Malaysia were determined and the proportion of children in the urban and rural areas of each state of the regions and by ethnic group was calculated as outlined in Fig 1. A standardized ratio of 1:1 for gender was used to determine the number of girls and boys required for each ethnicity in the rural and urban area. Equal numbers of children and adolescent aged 6 to 17 years were invited to participate in this study. Inclusion criteria were apparently healthy Malaysian school children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, without physical or mental disabilities and present in school on the day of assessment with parental consent.


Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

Ak N, Koo HC, Hamid Jan JM, Mohd Nasir MT, Tan SY, Appukutty M, Nurliyana AR, Thielecke F, Hopkins S, Ong MK, Ning C, Tee ES - PLoS ONE (2015)

Sampling procedure.†States included in each of the regions: Northern–Perlis, Kedah, Penang & Perak; Southern–Negeri Sembilan, Malacca & Johor; Central–Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya; East Coast–Kelantan, Pahang & Terengganu; East Malaysia–Sabah & Sarawak.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608561&req=5

pone.0138247.g001: Sampling procedure.†States included in each of the regions: Northern–Perlis, Kedah, Penang & Perak; Southern–Negeri Sembilan, Malacca & Johor; Central–Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur & Putrajaya; East Coast–Kelantan, Pahang & Terengganu; East Malaysia–Sabah & Sarawak.
Mentions: A multistage sampling method of respondents aged 6 to 17 years was carried out, based on geographical location and ethnic group distribution. The estimated sample size was calculated based on the total population of children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 3,414,906) and 13–17 years (n = 2,521,688) in Malaysia derived from the Population and Housing Census 2010 [24]. From this census data, the percentage of children required in each of the five regions, namely Northern, Southern, East Coast, Central region and East Malaysia were determined and the proportion of children in the urban and rural areas of each state of the regions and by ethnic group was calculated as outlined in Fig 1. A standardized ratio of 1:1 for gender was used to determine the number of girls and boys required for each ethnicity in the rural and urban area. Equal numbers of children and adolescent aged 6 to 17 years were invited to participate in this study. Inclusion criteria were apparently healthy Malaysian school children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years old, without physical or mental disabilities and present in school on the day of assessment with parental consent.

Bottom Line: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits.Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations.Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Nutrition Society of Malaysia, c/o Division of Human Nutrition, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.

Methods: This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.

Results: Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d) in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day.

Conclusion: Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

No MeSH data available.