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Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.


Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) analysis of FP carbonised at 1500 °C. a) representative GCD curves of the 1st, 100th, 1000th, and 3000th cycle in 5 m aqueous KCl solution at a current density of 1 A g−1; b) plot of specific capacitance against cycle number.
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fig05: Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) analysis of FP carbonised at 1500 °C. a) representative GCD curves of the 1st, 100th, 1000th, and 3000th cycle in 5 m aqueous KCl solution at a current density of 1 A g−1; b) plot of specific capacitance against cycle number.

Mentions: Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) was also used to analyse the electrochemical performance of carbonised FP within a 5 m KCl electrolyte. The experiments were carried out at current density of 1 A g−1 at the FP carbonised at different temperatures (raw, 600, 1000, 1300, 1500 and 1700 °C). Representative GCD curves can be found in Figure 5 a; the corresponding specific capacitance values determined using GCD are shown in Table 1. The IR drops observed at the raw and 600 °C samples were too fast to be measured, corresponding to extremely low capacitance. Otherwise, the relationship between carbonisation temperature and specific capacitance is the same as that observed by the CV method. According to GCD, use of FP carbonised at 1500 °C leads to the highest specific capacitance (117.21 F g−1), which is more than triple that associated with samples carbonised at 1300 °C or 1700 °C. This value is very competitive to other carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (50–100 F g−1),12 graphene (100–205 F g−1)13 and activated carbon (28–100 F g−1).14 The dramatic drop in capacitance at 1700 °C is likely because the high carbonisation temperature leads to the closure of micropores and small capillaries within the materials, resulting in a lower surface area. This phenomenon has been widely observed and reported.10


Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) analysis of FP carbonised at 1500 °C. a) representative GCD curves of the 1st, 100th, 1000th, and 3000th cycle in 5 m aqueous KCl solution at a current density of 1 A g−1; b) plot of specific capacitance against cycle number.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608524&req=5

fig05: Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) analysis of FP carbonised at 1500 °C. a) representative GCD curves of the 1st, 100th, 1000th, and 3000th cycle in 5 m aqueous KCl solution at a current density of 1 A g−1; b) plot of specific capacitance against cycle number.
Mentions: Galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) was also used to analyse the electrochemical performance of carbonised FP within a 5 m KCl electrolyte. The experiments were carried out at current density of 1 A g−1 at the FP carbonised at different temperatures (raw, 600, 1000, 1300, 1500 and 1700 °C). Representative GCD curves can be found in Figure 5 a; the corresponding specific capacitance values determined using GCD are shown in Table 1. The IR drops observed at the raw and 600 °C samples were too fast to be measured, corresponding to extremely low capacitance. Otherwise, the relationship between carbonisation temperature and specific capacitance is the same as that observed by the CV method. According to GCD, use of FP carbonised at 1500 °C leads to the highest specific capacitance (117.21 F g−1), which is more than triple that associated with samples carbonised at 1300 °C or 1700 °C. This value is very competitive to other carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (50–100 F g−1),12 graphene (100–205 F g−1)13 and activated carbon (28–100 F g−1).14 The dramatic drop in capacitance at 1700 °C is likely because the high carbonisation temperature leads to the closure of micropores and small capillaries within the materials, resulting in a lower surface area. This phenomenon has been widely observed and reported.10

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.