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Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.


Cyclic voltammograms performed in 5 m aqueous KCl solution with scanning from 0 to −0.8 V: a) raw FP and FP carbonised at different carbonisation temperatures (scan rate: 100 mV s−1); b) FP carbonised at 1500 °C (scan rate: 5–100 mV s−1).
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fig04: Cyclic voltammograms performed in 5 m aqueous KCl solution with scanning from 0 to −0.8 V: a) raw FP and FP carbonised at different carbonisation temperatures (scan rate: 100 mV s−1); b) FP carbonised at 1500 °C (scan rate: 5–100 mV s−1).

Mentions: Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out in a 5 m aqueous KCl solution using an unmodified FP sample (raw) and FP samples carbonised at 600, 1000, 1300, 1500 and 1700 °C. The voltammograms are shown in Figure 4 a. Hardly any current flow passes through an electrochemical cell comprised of unmodified FP (—) or 600 °C pretreated FP (– – –). After carbonisation at 1000 °C (••••) and 1300 °C (•–•–), the current density increased gradually, reaching a maximum of approximately 7 A g−1 when FP is carbonised at 1500 °C (-⋅⋅-). However, carbonisation at 1700 °C (- - - -) decreases current density. Another sample of FP with the highest current density (i.e., 1500 °C) was similarly exposed to a 5 m aqueous KCl solution, and CV was conducted with increasing scan rate from 5 to 100 mV s−1; the relevant results are shown in Figure 4 b. A quasi-rectangular shape along the current–potential axis is observed at all scan rates, suggesting well-defined, electric double-layer capacitive behaviour. Specific capacitance was calculated from the voltammograms (scan rate fixed at 5 mV s−1) of all studied samples and is summarised in Table 1. The specific capacitance increased from 0.07 F g−1 to 115.54 F g−1 in proportion to increased carbonisation temperature within the range of 0 to 1500 °C. However, the capacitance of the 1700 °C sample dropped to the same magnitude as the 1000 °C sample.


Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Cyclic voltammograms performed in 5 m aqueous KCl solution with scanning from 0 to −0.8 V: a) raw FP and FP carbonised at different carbonisation temperatures (scan rate: 100 mV s−1); b) FP carbonised at 1500 °C (scan rate: 5–100 mV s−1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608524&req=5

fig04: Cyclic voltammograms performed in 5 m aqueous KCl solution with scanning from 0 to −0.8 V: a) raw FP and FP carbonised at different carbonisation temperatures (scan rate: 100 mV s−1); b) FP carbonised at 1500 °C (scan rate: 5–100 mV s−1).
Mentions: Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out in a 5 m aqueous KCl solution using an unmodified FP sample (raw) and FP samples carbonised at 600, 1000, 1300, 1500 and 1700 °C. The voltammograms are shown in Figure 4 a. Hardly any current flow passes through an electrochemical cell comprised of unmodified FP (—) or 600 °C pretreated FP (– – –). After carbonisation at 1000 °C (••••) and 1300 °C (•–•–), the current density increased gradually, reaching a maximum of approximately 7 A g−1 when FP is carbonised at 1500 °C (-⋅⋅-). However, carbonisation at 1700 °C (- - - -) decreases current density. Another sample of FP with the highest current density (i.e., 1500 °C) was similarly exposed to a 5 m aqueous KCl solution, and CV was conducted with increasing scan rate from 5 to 100 mV s−1; the relevant results are shown in Figure 4 b. A quasi-rectangular shape along the current–potential axis is observed at all scan rates, suggesting well-defined, electric double-layer capacitive behaviour. Specific capacitance was calculated from the voltammograms (scan rate fixed at 5 mV s−1) of all studied samples and is summarised in Table 1. The specific capacitance increased from 0.07 F g−1 to 115.54 F g−1 in proportion to increased carbonisation temperature within the range of 0 to 1500 °C. However, the capacitance of the 1700 °C sample dropped to the same magnitude as the 1000 °C sample.

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.