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Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.


Current flow images of cotton pulp, obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM), at different carbonisation temperatures: a) raw, b) 600, c) 1000, d) 1300, e) 1500 and f) 1700 °C when −1 V was applied. The corresponding colours for the current flow from 0→300 μA are shown in the scale bar on the left.
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fig02: Current flow images of cotton pulp, obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM), at different carbonisation temperatures: a) raw, b) 600, c) 1000, d) 1300, e) 1500 and f) 1700 °C when −1 V was applied. The corresponding colours for the current flow from 0→300 μA are shown in the scale bar on the left.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the spectrum of FP modified by different carbonisation temperatures. The magnitude of the current density is represented by a colour scale, with yellow and blue indicating low and high current flow, respectively, and thereby low to high conductivity. As carbonisation temperature increases from 600 to 1700 °C, the area identified as nonconductive (yellow) decays, whilst the conductive area (blue) gradually emerges, and then becomes the dominant colour at higher temperatures. This result shows that higher carbonisation temperatures increase the conductivity of FP samples and that carbonisation at 1500 °C causes most of the FP sample to become conductive.


Cellulose-Derived Supercapacitors from the Carbonisation of Filter Paper.

Jiang L, Nelson GW, Kim H, Sim IN, Han SO, Foord JS - ChemistryOpen (2015)

Current flow images of cotton pulp, obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM), at different carbonisation temperatures: a) raw, b) 600, c) 1000, d) 1300, e) 1500 and f) 1700 °C when −1 V was applied. The corresponding colours for the current flow from 0→300 μA are shown in the scale bar on the left.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4608524&req=5

fig02: Current flow images of cotton pulp, obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM), at different carbonisation temperatures: a) raw, b) 600, c) 1000, d) 1300, e) 1500 and f) 1700 °C when −1 V was applied. The corresponding colours for the current flow from 0→300 μA are shown in the scale bar on the left.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the spectrum of FP modified by different carbonisation temperatures. The magnitude of the current density is represented by a colour scale, with yellow and blue indicating low and high current flow, respectively, and thereby low to high conductivity. As carbonisation temperature increases from 600 to 1700 °C, the area identified as nonconductive (yellow) decays, whilst the conductive area (blue) gradually emerges, and then becomes the dominant colour at higher temperatures. This result shows that higher carbonisation temperatures increase the conductivity of FP samples and that carbonisation at 1500 °C causes most of the FP sample to become conductive.

Bottom Line: Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance.These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials.Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Advanced carbon materials are important for the next-generation of energy storage apparatus, such as electrochemical capacitors. Here, the physical and electrochemical properties of carbonised filter paper (FP) were investigated. FP is comprised of pure cellulose and is a standardised material. After carbonisation at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1700 °C, FP was contaminant-free, containing only carbon and some oxygenated species, and its primary fibre structure was retained (diameter ≈20-40 μm). The observed enhancement in conductivity of the carbonised FP was correlated with the carbonisation temperature. Electrochemical capacitance in the range of ≈1.8-117 F g(-1) was achieved, with FP carbonised at 1500 °C showing the best performance. This high capacitance was stable with >87 % retained after 3000 charge-discharge cycles. These results show that carbonised FP, without the addition of composite materials, exhibits good supercapacitance performance, which competes well with existing electrodes made of carbon-based materials. Furthermore, given the lower cost and renewable source, cellulose-based materials are the more eco-friendly option for energy storage applications.

No MeSH data available.