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W3 Is a New Wax Locus That Is Essential for Biosynthesis of β-Diketone, Development of Glaucousness, and Reduction of Cuticle Permeability in Common Wheat.

Zhang Z, Wei W, Zhu H, Challa GS, Bi C, Trick HN, Li W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: W3 is essential for β-diketone biosynthesis but suppresses its hydroxylation.Loss-of-function mutation w3 significantly increased cuticle permeability in terms of water loss and chlorophyll efflux.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, 57007, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Key message: W3 is essential for β-diketone biosynthesis but suppresses its hydroxylation. Loss-of-function mutation w3 significantly increased cuticle permeability in terms of water loss and chlorophyll efflux.

No MeSH data available.


Variation of wax homologues between BW and w3 mutant.Carbon atom numbers of alkanes, β-diketones, primary alcohols (alkan-1-ols), fatty acids, wax esters, and aldehydes are indicated on the x-axes. Their contents are indicated on y-axes as μg per g dried tissue (dry weight, DW). The error bars indicate standard deviation of the mean calculated from five biological replicates. β-D, β-diketone; and OH-β, hydroxy-β-diketones.
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pone.0140524.g008: Variation of wax homologues between BW and w3 mutant.Carbon atom numbers of alkanes, β-diketones, primary alcohols (alkan-1-ols), fatty acids, wax esters, and aldehydes are indicated on the x-axes. Their contents are indicated on y-axes as μg per g dried tissue (dry weight, DW). The error bars indicate standard deviation of the mean calculated from five biological replicates. β-D, β-diketone; and OH-β, hydroxy-β-diketones.

Mentions: We analyzed the distribution patterns of major wax species in BW and w3 mutant. In BW, two major wax components, diketones and alkanes account for 63.3% and 34.0% of the total wax load, respectively. Remaining 2.7% are wax esters (1.0%), fatty acids (0.8%), primary alcohols (0.7%) and aldehydes (0.2%). Dramatic differences were found in total wax load and wax composition between BW and w3 mutant (Fig 7). Compared to BW, w3 mutant lost 64% of the total wax (P = 5 x 10−7; Fig 7). While alkanes were maintained unchanged (P = 0.68113; Fig 7), β-diketones reduced to 1% in w3 mutant (P = 1 x 10−8; Fig 7). As a result, alkanes account for over 90% of the total wax load of w3 mutant (Fig 7). Two types of diketones, β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, were detected. Hydroxy-β-diketones account for 8.5% of the total β-diketones in BW. As a result, BW had a hydroxy-β-diketones to β-diketone ratio (OH-D/β-D) of 0.0925. In w3 mutant, β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones did not reduce proportionally: 181-fold reduction in β-diketone (P = 1 x 10−7), but 16-fold reduction in hydroxy-β-diketones (P = 0.00002; Fig 8). Two hydroxy-β-diketone isomers, 8- and 9-hydroxy hentriatane-14,16-dione, were detected. The 8-isomer reduced ~14-fold (P = 2 x 10−5) and the 9-isomer reduced ~22-fold (P = 0.00001) in w3 mutant. Therefore, the hydroxy-β-diketones content was roughly equal to that of β-diketone in w3 mutant with an OH-D/β-D of 1.014 (Fig 8), indicating a ~11-fold increase as compared to BW (P = 0.00695). This suggests a differential effect of the w3 mutation on biosynthesis of β-diketone and its hydroxylation.


W3 Is a New Wax Locus That Is Essential for Biosynthesis of β-Diketone, Development of Glaucousness, and Reduction of Cuticle Permeability in Common Wheat.

Zhang Z, Wei W, Zhu H, Challa GS, Bi C, Trick HN, Li W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation of wax homologues between BW and w3 mutant.Carbon atom numbers of alkanes, β-diketones, primary alcohols (alkan-1-ols), fatty acids, wax esters, and aldehydes are indicated on the x-axes. Their contents are indicated on y-axes as μg per g dried tissue (dry weight, DW). The error bars indicate standard deviation of the mean calculated from five biological replicates. β-D, β-diketone; and OH-β, hydroxy-β-diketones.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4607432&req=5

pone.0140524.g008: Variation of wax homologues between BW and w3 mutant.Carbon atom numbers of alkanes, β-diketones, primary alcohols (alkan-1-ols), fatty acids, wax esters, and aldehydes are indicated on the x-axes. Their contents are indicated on y-axes as μg per g dried tissue (dry weight, DW). The error bars indicate standard deviation of the mean calculated from five biological replicates. β-D, β-diketone; and OH-β, hydroxy-β-diketones.
Mentions: We analyzed the distribution patterns of major wax species in BW and w3 mutant. In BW, two major wax components, diketones and alkanes account for 63.3% and 34.0% of the total wax load, respectively. Remaining 2.7% are wax esters (1.0%), fatty acids (0.8%), primary alcohols (0.7%) and aldehydes (0.2%). Dramatic differences were found in total wax load and wax composition between BW and w3 mutant (Fig 7). Compared to BW, w3 mutant lost 64% of the total wax (P = 5 x 10−7; Fig 7). While alkanes were maintained unchanged (P = 0.68113; Fig 7), β-diketones reduced to 1% in w3 mutant (P = 1 x 10−8; Fig 7). As a result, alkanes account for over 90% of the total wax load of w3 mutant (Fig 7). Two types of diketones, β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, were detected. Hydroxy-β-diketones account for 8.5% of the total β-diketones in BW. As a result, BW had a hydroxy-β-diketones to β-diketone ratio (OH-D/β-D) of 0.0925. In w3 mutant, β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones did not reduce proportionally: 181-fold reduction in β-diketone (P = 1 x 10−7), but 16-fold reduction in hydroxy-β-diketones (P = 0.00002; Fig 8). Two hydroxy-β-diketone isomers, 8- and 9-hydroxy hentriatane-14,16-dione, were detected. The 8-isomer reduced ~14-fold (P = 2 x 10−5) and the 9-isomer reduced ~22-fold (P = 0.00001) in w3 mutant. Therefore, the hydroxy-β-diketones content was roughly equal to that of β-diketone in w3 mutant with an OH-D/β-D of 1.014 (Fig 8), indicating a ~11-fold increase as compared to BW (P = 0.00695). This suggests a differential effect of the w3 mutation on biosynthesis of β-diketone and its hydroxylation.

Bottom Line: W3 is essential for β-diketone biosynthesis but suppresses its hydroxylation.Loss-of-function mutation w3 significantly increased cuticle permeability in terms of water loss and chlorophyll efflux.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, 57007, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Key message: W3 is essential for β-diketone biosynthesis but suppresses its hydroxylation. Loss-of-function mutation w3 significantly increased cuticle permeability in terms of water loss and chlorophyll efflux.

No MeSH data available.