Limits...
Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate.

Brudzynski SM - Curr Neuropharmacol (2015)

Bottom Line: Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors.Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors.The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines, Ontario, L2S 3A1 Canada. sbrudzyn@brocku.ca.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Figure illustrates diagrammatically main acoustic features of subtypes of ultrasonic vocalizations of adult rats in a tabular way.Each subtype (call type listed in the left rubric) is shown in a form of the most typical pictograms with main sonographic featurescharacteristic for the subtype in the center rubric. Not all possible variations of the calls are depicted. Pictograms are not actual sonograms.Thicker lines denote sound frequency over time. The time bar = 100 ms. The dotted vertical lines join elements of a single call but are notpresent in actual sonograms. Sonograms recorded from rats show higher variability than that illustrated here and each element of a call maybe represented by less straight lines and with a varying degree of turbulence. Elements of the 50 kHz calls may be of varying length, andsometimes, particularly the upper parts of the step calls, may be under angles. Frequency fluctuations are not to the scale. The right rubricprovides exemplary references that show actual sonograms of similar types of vocalizations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4598430&req=5

Figure 1: The Figure illustrates diagrammatically main acoustic features of subtypes of ultrasonic vocalizations of adult rats in a tabular way.Each subtype (call type listed in the left rubric) is shown in a form of the most typical pictograms with main sonographic featurescharacteristic for the subtype in the center rubric. Not all possible variations of the calls are depicted. Pictograms are not actual sonograms.Thicker lines denote sound frequency over time. The time bar = 100 ms. The dotted vertical lines join elements of a single call but are notpresent in actual sonograms. Sonograms recorded from rats show higher variability than that illustrated here and each element of a call maybe represented by less straight lines and with a varying degree of turbulence. Elements of the 50 kHz calls may be of varying length, andsometimes, particularly the upper parts of the step calls, may be under angles. Frequency fluctuations are not to the scale. The right rubricprovides exemplary references that show actual sonograms of similar types of vocalizations.

Mentions: Detailed sonographic studies of 50 kHz calls revealed that these vocalizations demonstrate some acoustic heterogeneity and could be further divided into subtypes [28, 32, 110, 124-127]. The division into subtypes was mostly based on such features as frequency profile and call duration. The 50 kHz vocalizations were divided into flat calls (FL, constant sound frequency) and frequency-modulated calls (FM, variable sound frequency; see Fig. 1). Both FL and FM 50 kHz vocalizations remain within the same peak frequency range but differ in the sonographic profile and duration. FL 50 kHz calls have duration of approximately 10-100 ms and their frequency range is between 35 and 50 kHz, while the FM 50 kHz calls have approximate duration 20-150 ms and their frequency range is 40-80 kHz with dramatic changes in sound frequency (Fig. 1) [32, 104, 110, 124, 126, 128].


Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate.

Brudzynski SM - Curr Neuropharmacol (2015)

The Figure illustrates diagrammatically main acoustic features of subtypes of ultrasonic vocalizations of adult rats in a tabular way.Each subtype (call type listed in the left rubric) is shown in a form of the most typical pictograms with main sonographic featurescharacteristic for the subtype in the center rubric. Not all possible variations of the calls are depicted. Pictograms are not actual sonograms.Thicker lines denote sound frequency over time. The time bar = 100 ms. The dotted vertical lines join elements of a single call but are notpresent in actual sonograms. Sonograms recorded from rats show higher variability than that illustrated here and each element of a call maybe represented by less straight lines and with a varying degree of turbulence. Elements of the 50 kHz calls may be of varying length, andsometimes, particularly the upper parts of the step calls, may be under angles. Frequency fluctuations are not to the scale. The right rubricprovides exemplary references that show actual sonograms of similar types of vocalizations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4598430&req=5

Figure 1: The Figure illustrates diagrammatically main acoustic features of subtypes of ultrasonic vocalizations of adult rats in a tabular way.Each subtype (call type listed in the left rubric) is shown in a form of the most typical pictograms with main sonographic featurescharacteristic for the subtype in the center rubric. Not all possible variations of the calls are depicted. Pictograms are not actual sonograms.Thicker lines denote sound frequency over time. The time bar = 100 ms. The dotted vertical lines join elements of a single call but are notpresent in actual sonograms. Sonograms recorded from rats show higher variability than that illustrated here and each element of a call maybe represented by less straight lines and with a varying degree of turbulence. Elements of the 50 kHz calls may be of varying length, andsometimes, particularly the upper parts of the step calls, may be under angles. Frequency fluctuations are not to the scale. The right rubricprovides exemplary references that show actual sonograms of similar types of vocalizations.
Mentions: Detailed sonographic studies of 50 kHz calls revealed that these vocalizations demonstrate some acoustic heterogeneity and could be further divided into subtypes [28, 32, 110, 124-127]. The division into subtypes was mostly based on such features as frequency profile and call duration. The 50 kHz vocalizations were divided into flat calls (FL, constant sound frequency) and frequency-modulated calls (FM, variable sound frequency; see Fig. 1). Both FL and FM 50 kHz vocalizations remain within the same peak frequency range but differ in the sonographic profile and duration. FL 50 kHz calls have duration of approximately 10-100 ms and their frequency range is between 35 and 50 kHz, while the FM 50 kHz calls have approximate duration 20-150 ms and their frequency range is 40-80 kHz with dramatic changes in sound frequency (Fig. 1) [32, 104, 110, 124, 126, 128].

Bottom Line: Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors.Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors.The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines, Ontario, L2S 3A1 Canada. sbrudzyn@brocku.ca.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus