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Selected metabolites profiling of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth leaves extracts combined with chemometrics analysis and correlation with biological activities.

Saidan NH, Hamil MS, Memon AH, Abdelbari MM, Hamdan MR, Mohd KS, Majid AM, Ismail Z - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: FTIR fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed that the extracts have been clustered based on protein and polysaccharide contents.Ten different extracts of O. stamineus have showed significant differences in the content of selected primary and secondary metabolites as well as the biological activities.Chemometric tools were able to classify and discriminate the distinctive features of extracts thus can be correlated with the biological activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. hafizohsaidan@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies on selected metabolites profiling of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometric tools have not been fully elucidated. Thus present study was performed to profile selected metabolites in O. stamineus leaves extracts using HPLC and FTIR combined with chemometric tools and correlated with biological activities.

Methods: Five different extracts were prepared using three methods; maceration, soxhlet and reflux. The extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, HPLC and FTIR techniques. Analysis of selected primary and secondary metabolites was also evaluated. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated. Chemometric tools were employed to classify the extracts based on HPLC analysis and FTIR fingerprints.

Results: The ethanolic extract using maceration characterized high content of phenolics and flavonoids, (rosmarinic acid and eupatorin) with high antioxidant activity. Ethanolic (50%) and methanolic extracts using soxhlet showed high proteins and glycosaponins. Water extracts using reflux and maceration showed high polysaccharides. Methanolic extract (50%) using soxhlet and methanolic extract using maceration showed strong cytotoxic effect against MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines, respectively. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities showed significant correlation with selected primary and secondary metabolites. HPLC fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed the extracts have been clustered based on selected major peaks profile. FTIR fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed that the extracts have been clustered based on protein and polysaccharide contents.

Conclusion: Ten different extracts of O. stamineus have showed significant differences in the content of selected primary and secondary metabolites as well as the biological activities. Chemometric tools were able to classify and discriminate the distinctive features of extracts thus can be correlated with the biological activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Principle component analysis of different extracts of O. stamineus leaves; a scores plot, b correlation loading, c Bi-plot and d HCA dendogram based on the PA/W values of seven common peaks
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Fig2: Principle component analysis of different extracts of O. stamineus leaves; a scores plot, b correlation loading, c Bi-plot and d HCA dendogram based on the PA/W values of seven common peaks

Mentions: The scores plot obtained from PCA is shown in Fig. 2a. It is shown that the extracts mainly distributed into four groups; group I–IV. Two components, PC-1 and PC-2 showed accounted of 97 % of total variance. From the scores plot, group I and II were in the positive PC-1 axis while group III and IV were in the negative PC-1 axis. Based on the result, those samples with similar chemical profiles are grouped near to each other while larger distance was observed in samples with different chemical profile. To find the variables that contributed to the significant differences between different extracts, the correlation loading plots of PC-1 and PC-2 were generated (Fig. 2b). From correlation loading plots, the PC-1 loading plot indicated that peak 2 (RA) contributed positively to the positions of extracts in group I and II, whereas peak 5 (EUP) contributed in the position of ethanolic extract (50 %) using maceration in group III at negative PC-1 while water extract using maceration (group IV) was influenced by peak 1 (unknown 1). From Fig. 2b, it also showed that peak 6 (unknown 2) and peak 7 (unknown 3) are located in the inner circle, means they did not influenced the discrimination of ten different crude extracts.Fig. 2


Selected metabolites profiling of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth leaves extracts combined with chemometrics analysis and correlation with biological activities.

Saidan NH, Hamil MS, Memon AH, Abdelbari MM, Hamdan MR, Mohd KS, Majid AM, Ismail Z - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Principle component analysis of different extracts of O. stamineus leaves; a scores plot, b correlation loading, c Bi-plot and d HCA dendogram based on the PA/W values of seven common peaks
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597610&req=5

Fig2: Principle component analysis of different extracts of O. stamineus leaves; a scores plot, b correlation loading, c Bi-plot and d HCA dendogram based on the PA/W values of seven common peaks
Mentions: The scores plot obtained from PCA is shown in Fig. 2a. It is shown that the extracts mainly distributed into four groups; group I–IV. Two components, PC-1 and PC-2 showed accounted of 97 % of total variance. From the scores plot, group I and II were in the positive PC-1 axis while group III and IV were in the negative PC-1 axis. Based on the result, those samples with similar chemical profiles are grouped near to each other while larger distance was observed in samples with different chemical profile. To find the variables that contributed to the significant differences between different extracts, the correlation loading plots of PC-1 and PC-2 were generated (Fig. 2b). From correlation loading plots, the PC-1 loading plot indicated that peak 2 (RA) contributed positively to the positions of extracts in group I and II, whereas peak 5 (EUP) contributed in the position of ethanolic extract (50 %) using maceration in group III at negative PC-1 while water extract using maceration (group IV) was influenced by peak 1 (unknown 1). From Fig. 2b, it also showed that peak 6 (unknown 2) and peak 7 (unknown 3) are located in the inner circle, means they did not influenced the discrimination of ten different crude extracts.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: FTIR fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed that the extracts have been clustered based on protein and polysaccharide contents.Ten different extracts of O. stamineus have showed significant differences in the content of selected primary and secondary metabolites as well as the biological activities.Chemometric tools were able to classify and discriminate the distinctive features of extracts thus can be correlated with the biological activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. hafizohsaidan@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies on selected metabolites profiling of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometric tools have not been fully elucidated. Thus present study was performed to profile selected metabolites in O. stamineus leaves extracts using HPLC and FTIR combined with chemometric tools and correlated with biological activities.

Methods: Five different extracts were prepared using three methods; maceration, soxhlet and reflux. The extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, HPLC and FTIR techniques. Analysis of selected primary and secondary metabolites was also evaluated. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extracts were evaluated. Chemometric tools were employed to classify the extracts based on HPLC analysis and FTIR fingerprints.

Results: The ethanolic extract using maceration characterized high content of phenolics and flavonoids, (rosmarinic acid and eupatorin) with high antioxidant activity. Ethanolic (50%) and methanolic extracts using soxhlet showed high proteins and glycosaponins. Water extracts using reflux and maceration showed high polysaccharides. Methanolic extract (50%) using soxhlet and methanolic extract using maceration showed strong cytotoxic effect against MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines, respectively. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities showed significant correlation with selected primary and secondary metabolites. HPLC fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed the extracts have been clustered based on selected major peaks profile. FTIR fingerprints combined with chemometrics showed that the extracts have been clustered based on protein and polysaccharide contents.

Conclusion: Ten different extracts of O. stamineus have showed significant differences in the content of selected primary and secondary metabolites as well as the biological activities. Chemometric tools were able to classify and discriminate the distinctive features of extracts thus can be correlated with the biological activities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus