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Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Response time as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
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Figure 4: Response time as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.

Mentions: The results of the mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects for all variables (see Table 2). Load had a significant effect, since response times at 1-back were lower (M = 821.66; SD = 277.95) than at 2-back (M = 1014.32; SD = 432.22). An age effect was also found (see Figure 4). A trend analysis showed a significant linear component for age that explained 97.7% of the variance. Finally, there were a significant gender effect that was qualified by a significant interaction between load and gender. Although boys (M = 887.78, SD = 283.82) tended to respond quicker than girls (M = 970.94, SD = 284.44), this difference was greater at 2-back (106 ms) than at 1-back (73 ms) level. No other interaction was significant (p = 0.154). Post hoc comparison with the Bonferroni correction revealed significant differences between all age groups (p < 0.001), except between 11 and 12 years where no differences were found (p = 1).


Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

Response time as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597481&req=5

Figure 4: Response time as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
Mentions: The results of the mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects for all variables (see Table 2). Load had a significant effect, since response times at 1-back were lower (M = 821.66; SD = 277.95) than at 2-back (M = 1014.32; SD = 432.22). An age effect was also found (see Figure 4). A trend analysis showed a significant linear component for age that explained 97.7% of the variance. Finally, there were a significant gender effect that was qualified by a significant interaction between load and gender. Although boys (M = 887.78, SD = 283.82) tended to respond quicker than girls (M = 970.94, SD = 284.44), this difference was greater at 2-back (106 ms) than at 1-back (73 ms) level. No other interaction was significant (p = 0.154). Post hoc comparison with the Bonferroni correction revealed significant differences between all age groups (p < 0.001), except between 11 and 12 years where no differences were found (p = 1).

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus