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Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.


D-prime scores (d′) as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
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Figure 3: D-prime scores (d′) as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.

Mentions: An interaction analysis between the linear trend of age and load revealed that even though d′ increased with age at both levels of load, the age trend was different for each level as shown by the significant interaction. As with the previous analysis on hits, an age-trend analysis for each n-back load indicated an age-related linear increase on d′ at both 1-back and 2-back. Thus, the interaction was again due to the fact that the linear increase was more pronounced at 2-back than at 1-back level (see Figure 3). This pattern was also evidenced by post hoc analyses with the Bonferroni correction that showed that at 1-back, all the age groups differed (p < 0.05), except at contiguous age groups (p > 0.06), excluding 9 vs. 10 (p = 0.009). At 2-back significant differences were observed between all age groups (p < 0.027), except between 7 vs. 8 (p = 0.514) and 11 vs. 12 (p = 1).


Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

D-prime scores (d′) as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597481&req=5

Figure 3: D-prime scores (d′) as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
Mentions: An interaction analysis between the linear trend of age and load revealed that even though d′ increased with age at both levels of load, the age trend was different for each level as shown by the significant interaction. As with the previous analysis on hits, an age-trend analysis for each n-back load indicated an age-related linear increase on d′ at both 1-back and 2-back. Thus, the interaction was again due to the fact that the linear increase was more pronounced at 2-back than at 1-back level (see Figure 3). This pattern was also evidenced by post hoc analyses with the Bonferroni correction that showed that at 1-back, all the age groups differed (p < 0.05), except at contiguous age groups (p > 0.06), excluding 9 vs. 10 (p = 0.009). At 2-back significant differences were observed between all age groups (p < 0.027), except between 7 vs. 8 (p = 0.514) and 11 vs. 12 (p = 1).

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.