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Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of false alarms as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
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Figure 2: Percentage of false alarms as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.

Mentions: A 2 (n-back load) × 7 (age) × 2 (gender) ANOVA was conducted on the percentage of false alarms (see Table 2). There was a significant effect of load, with the percentage of false alarms in the 1-back condition (M = 8.32, SD = 10.66) lower than that observed at 2-back (M = 13.81, SD = 14.56). The main effect of age was also significant. As can be seen in Figure 2, there was a linear decrease in the percentage of false alarms with age similar at both n-back levels. A trend analysis revealed that only the linear component was significant, accounting for 99.12% of the variance. A posteriori analyses using the Bonferroni correction revealed differences in recognition between each age group (p < 0.05), except at contiguous age groups (p > 0. 20) and between 10 and 12 year old (p = 0.06).


Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

Pelegrina S, Lechuga MT, García-Madruga JA, Elosúa MR, Macizo P, Carreiras M, Fuentes LJ, Bajo MT - Front Psychol (2015)

Percentage of false alarms as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597481&req=5

Figure 2: Percentage of false alarms as a function of age in 1-back and 2-back conditions. Error bars indicate two standard error of the mean.
Mentions: A 2 (n-back load) × 7 (age) × 2 (gender) ANOVA was conducted on the percentage of false alarms (see Table 2). There was a significant effect of load, with the percentage of false alarms in the 1-back condition (M = 8.32, SD = 10.66) lower than that observed at 2-back (M = 13.81, SD = 14.56). The main effect of age was also significant. As can be seen in Figure 2, there was a linear decrease in the percentage of false alarms with age similar at both n-back levels. A trend analysis revealed that only the linear component was significant, accounting for 99.12% of the variance. A posteriori analyses using the Bonferroni correction revealed differences in recognition between each age group (p < 0.05), except at contiguous age groups (p > 0. 20) and between 10 and 12 year old (p = 0.06).

Bottom Line: Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond.The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Jaén , Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

No MeSH data available.