Limits...
Blood plasma lipidome profile of dairy cows during the transition period.

Imhasly S, Bieli C, Naegeli H, Nyström L, Ruetten M, Gerspach C - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate.Further characterization of analytes by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that the concentration of triacylglycerides in plasma drops at the day of parturition whereas the plasma level of many phosphatidylcholines and two sphingomyelins increases steadily during early lactation.This newly identified shift in phospholipid composition delivers a potential biomarker to detect aberrant metabolic pathways in transition cows and also provides insights into how to prevent and treat associated disorders like fatty liver disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland. sandro.imhasly@vetpharm.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The transition period of dairy cows, around parturition and the onset of lactation, involves endocrine and metabolic changes to compensate for an increased energy requirement aggravated by reduced feed intake. Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate.

Results: To study the biochemical adaptations underlying this physiologic adjustment and possible pathologic derangements, we analyzed the blood plasma lipidome of transition cows by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting data were processed by principal component analysis, revealing over 60 lipid masses that change in abundance over the test period ranging from two weeks before calving to four weeks postpartum. Further characterization of analytes by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that the concentration of triacylglycerides in plasma drops at the day of parturition whereas the plasma level of many phosphatidylcholines and two sphingomyelins increases steadily during early lactation.

Conclusion: This newly identified shift in phospholipid composition delivers a potential biomarker to detect aberrant metabolic pathways in transition cows and also provides insights into how to prevent and treat associated disorders like fatty liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Plasma concentration of triacylglycerides (TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6) in the 12 transition period cows. The time of sampling is indicated relative to the date of calving. Mean values ± SEM; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 compared to the values at the beginning of the study (day −14)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597432&req=5

Fig10: Plasma concentration of triacylglycerides (TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6) in the 12 transition period cows. The time of sampling is indicated relative to the date of calving. Mean values ± SEM; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 compared to the values at the beginning of the study (day −14)

Mentions: As the next step, the lipids responsible for this separation were characterized and quantified. In Fig. 7, the chromatographic retention time windows of lipid classes are indicated to illustrate how their classification is simplified by the respective position in the elution profile (Ogiso et al. 2008). One class of lipids that discriminates between the different time points around parturition consisted of triacylglycerides (TGs), including TG 48:3, TG 48:1, TG 49:2, TG 49:1, TG 50:4, TG 50:3, TG 50:2, TG 51:3, TG 51:2, TG 51:1, TG 52:4, TG 52:3, TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6. All these TGs displayed high plasma levels in cows before calving but, on the day of parturition, their levels dropped instantaneously and remained low for up to 28 days post partum (Figs. 8, 9 and 10). Lyso-posphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels, in contrast, increased progressively post partum. This increment was significant for LPC 16:0, LPC 18:3, LPC 18:2, LPC 18:1, LPC 20:5, PC P-34:2, PC P-36:5, PC P-36:4 and PC 36:6 (Figs 11 and 12). In addition, the sphingomyelines SM 39:1 and 43:3 were increased post partum in the same manner as described for phosphatidylcholines (Fig. 13). There is an intriguing although not statistically significant drop of PC levels at the day of parturition. It should be noted that not all identified phosphatidylcholines showed this same pattern of increased concentrations post partum compared to ante partum. In the case PC 38:1, PC 40:3 and PC 42:6, there was first a drop in plasma levels from day −14 to calving, followed by a slow recovery post partum (Fig. 14). For PC 34:0, we observed an exceptionally sharp increase at the day of calving followed by a progressive reduction to reach the starting level measured at the beginning of the study (Fig. 14). Finally, we also identified the two fatty acid amides linoleamide and anandamide, whose plasma levels are transiently depressed only at the time of calving (Fig. 15).Fig. 7


Blood plasma lipidome profile of dairy cows during the transition period.

Imhasly S, Bieli C, Naegeli H, Nyström L, Ruetten M, Gerspach C - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Plasma concentration of triacylglycerides (TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6) in the 12 transition period cows. The time of sampling is indicated relative to the date of calving. Mean values ± SEM; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 compared to the values at the beginning of the study (day −14)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4597432&req=5

Fig10: Plasma concentration of triacylglycerides (TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6) in the 12 transition period cows. The time of sampling is indicated relative to the date of calving. Mean values ± SEM; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 compared to the values at the beginning of the study (day −14)
Mentions: As the next step, the lipids responsible for this separation were characterized and quantified. In Fig. 7, the chromatographic retention time windows of lipid classes are indicated to illustrate how their classification is simplified by the respective position in the elution profile (Ogiso et al. 2008). One class of lipids that discriminates between the different time points around parturition consisted of triacylglycerides (TGs), including TG 48:3, TG 48:1, TG 49:2, TG 49:1, TG 50:4, TG 50:3, TG 50:2, TG 51:3, TG 51:2, TG 51:1, TG 52:4, TG 52:3, TG 53:3, TG 54:6 and TG 56:6. All these TGs displayed high plasma levels in cows before calving but, on the day of parturition, their levels dropped instantaneously and remained low for up to 28 days post partum (Figs. 8, 9 and 10). Lyso-posphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels, in contrast, increased progressively post partum. This increment was significant for LPC 16:0, LPC 18:3, LPC 18:2, LPC 18:1, LPC 20:5, PC P-34:2, PC P-36:5, PC P-36:4 and PC 36:6 (Figs 11 and 12). In addition, the sphingomyelines SM 39:1 and 43:3 were increased post partum in the same manner as described for phosphatidylcholines (Fig. 13). There is an intriguing although not statistically significant drop of PC levels at the day of parturition. It should be noted that not all identified phosphatidylcholines showed this same pattern of increased concentrations post partum compared to ante partum. In the case PC 38:1, PC 40:3 and PC 42:6, there was first a drop in plasma levels from day −14 to calving, followed by a slow recovery post partum (Fig. 14). For PC 34:0, we observed an exceptionally sharp increase at the day of calving followed by a progressive reduction to reach the starting level measured at the beginning of the study (Fig. 14). Finally, we also identified the two fatty acid amides linoleamide and anandamide, whose plasma levels are transiently depressed only at the time of calving (Fig. 15).Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate.Further characterization of analytes by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that the concentration of triacylglycerides in plasma drops at the day of parturition whereas the plasma level of many phosphatidylcholines and two sphingomyelins increases steadily during early lactation.This newly identified shift in phospholipid composition delivers a potential biomarker to detect aberrant metabolic pathways in transition cows and also provides insights into how to prevent and treat associated disorders like fatty liver disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland. sandro.imhasly@vetpharm.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The transition period of dairy cows, around parturition and the onset of lactation, involves endocrine and metabolic changes to compensate for an increased energy requirement aggravated by reduced feed intake. Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate.

Results: To study the biochemical adaptations underlying this physiologic adjustment and possible pathologic derangements, we analyzed the blood plasma lipidome of transition cows by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting data were processed by principal component analysis, revealing over 60 lipid masses that change in abundance over the test period ranging from two weeks before calving to four weeks postpartum. Further characterization of analytes by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that the concentration of triacylglycerides in plasma drops at the day of parturition whereas the plasma level of many phosphatidylcholines and two sphingomyelins increases steadily during early lactation.

Conclusion: This newly identified shift in phospholipid composition delivers a potential biomarker to detect aberrant metabolic pathways in transition cows and also provides insights into how to prevent and treat associated disorders like fatty liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus