Limits...
A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

Xu X, Wang H, Zhang F, Hu Z, Liang S, Liu Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties.This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders.This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, China.

ABSTRACT
Dolomedes sulfurous and Dolomedes mizhoanus are predaceous arthropods catching and feeding on small fish. They live in the same area and have similar habits. Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties. In the present work, we first performed a transcriptomic analysis by constructing the venom gland cDNA library of D. sulfurous and 127 novel putative toxin sequences were consequently identified, which were classified into eight families. This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders. The putative toxins from both spiders contain 6-12 cysteine residues forming seven cysteine patterns. As revealed by blast search, the two venoms are rich in neurotoxins targeting ion channels with pharmacological and therapeutic significance. This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic tree of putative toxin precursors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus venom glands.The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by using the Maximum Likelihood method of the MEGA 5 software package. Red and black branches represent putative toxin precusors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596850&req=5

pone.0139908.g005: Phylogenetic tree of putative toxin precursors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus venom glands.The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by using the Maximum Likelihood method of the MEGA 5 software package. Red and black branches represent putative toxin precusors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus, respectively.

Mentions: The phylogenetic tree of all precursors was drawn by using neighbor-joining method (S3 Fig) or maximum likelihood method (Fig 5). It should note that using the two methods exported similar phylogenetic trees. Consistent with the multiple sequence alignment data, nine families were indicated as represented by nine small clades in the phylogenetic trees (red and black branches represent precursors from D. mizhoanus and D. sulfurous, respectively). Generally speaking, all precursors formed two main clades, which suggested that peptide toxins from the two spiders might originate from same gene ancestors. The families I and II belonged to first main clade, while the remaining families III-IX formed the second one. In the families (Families I-III and VIII) containing precursors from the two spiders, the red and black branches mixed together, indicating these precursors were conserved during evolution process. On the other hand, in the families (Families IV-VII and V) formed by precursors from each spider species, respectively, the red or black branches were isolated to form independent small clades, indicating these precursors had different evolution directions in two spiders.


A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

Xu X, Wang H, Zhang F, Hu Z, Liang S, Liu Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogenetic tree of putative toxin precursors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus venom glands.The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by using the Maximum Likelihood method of the MEGA 5 software package. Red and black branches represent putative toxin precusors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596850&req=5

pone.0139908.g005: Phylogenetic tree of putative toxin precursors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus venom glands.The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by using the Maximum Likelihood method of the MEGA 5 software package. Red and black branches represent putative toxin precusors from D. sulfurous and D. mizhoanus, respectively.
Mentions: The phylogenetic tree of all precursors was drawn by using neighbor-joining method (S3 Fig) or maximum likelihood method (Fig 5). It should note that using the two methods exported similar phylogenetic trees. Consistent with the multiple sequence alignment data, nine families were indicated as represented by nine small clades in the phylogenetic trees (red and black branches represent precursors from D. mizhoanus and D. sulfurous, respectively). Generally speaking, all precursors formed two main clades, which suggested that peptide toxins from the two spiders might originate from same gene ancestors. The families I and II belonged to first main clade, while the remaining families III-IX formed the second one. In the families (Families I-III and VIII) containing precursors from the two spiders, the red and black branches mixed together, indicating these precursors were conserved during evolution process. On the other hand, in the families (Families IV-VII and V) formed by precursors from each spider species, respectively, the red or black branches were isolated to form independent small clades, indicating these precursors had different evolution directions in two spiders.

Bottom Line: Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties.This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders.This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, China.

ABSTRACT
Dolomedes sulfurous and Dolomedes mizhoanus are predaceous arthropods catching and feeding on small fish. They live in the same area and have similar habits. Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties. In the present work, we first performed a transcriptomic analysis by constructing the venom gland cDNA library of D. sulfurous and 127 novel putative toxin sequences were consequently identified, which were classified into eight families. This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders. The putative toxins from both spiders contain 6-12 cysteine residues forming seven cysteine patterns. As revealed by blast search, the two venoms are rich in neurotoxins targeting ion channels with pharmacological and therapeutic significance. This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

No MeSH data available.