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A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

Xu X, Wang H, Zhang F, Hu Z, Liang S, Liu Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties.This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders.This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, China.

ABSTRACT
Dolomedes sulfurous and Dolomedes mizhoanus are predaceous arthropods catching and feeding on small fish. They live in the same area and have similar habits. Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties. In the present work, we first performed a transcriptomic analysis by constructing the venom gland cDNA library of D. sulfurous and 127 novel putative toxin sequences were consequently identified, which were classified into eight families. This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders. The putative toxins from both spiders contain 6-12 cysteine residues forming seven cysteine patterns. As revealed by blast search, the two venoms are rich in neurotoxins targeting ion channels with pharmacological and therapeutic significance. This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

No MeSH data available.


Relative proportion of each transcript category from D. sulfurous venom gland cDNA library.
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pone.0139908.g001: Relative proportion of each transcript category from D. sulfurous venom gland cDNA library.

Mentions: The directional full-length cDNA library was generated from the venom glands of D. sulfurous. The average length of the cDNA in the library was about 500 bp, ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 kb. After removing vector, short and poor-quality sequences, 267 high-quality ESTs were randomly generated from the cDNA library. Of the 267 ESTs, 71% (190 of 267 ESTs) might encode putative toxin precursors, 24% (65 of 267 ESTs) were similar to cellular transcripts, and 5% (12 of 267 ESTs) had no significant similarity to any known sequences (Fig 1). The average readable sequence length was approximately 599 bp. 204 non-redundancy sequences from the total 267 ESTs encoded 127 novel putative toxin precursors (GenBank accession numbers, KP777610-KP777736), 65 cellular body proteins (GenBank accession numbers, KP777737-KP777801) and 12 unknown proteins which had very low sequence similarity with any known proteins, respectively. Of the 127 putative toxin precursors, 90 non-redundant mature peptide sequences were obtained. The 267 ESTs assembling resulted in 83 clusters, including 25 contigs and 58 singletons. The abundance distribution of all ESTs was cataloged as follows (Fig 2): (1) Two clusters contained 20–70 ESTs, respectively, which represented 2.4% of the total clusters (2 of 83 clusters) and 32.6% of the total ESTs (87 of 267 ESTs). All of them were predicted to encode toxins. (2) Four clusters included 10–19 ESTs, respectively, which represented 4.8% of the total clusters (4 of 83 clusters) and 19.8% of the total ESTs (53 of 267 ESTs). They might encode toxins and cellular proteins. (3) 19 clusters included 2–9 ESTs, respectively, represented 22.9% of the total clusters (19 of 83 clusters) and 26% of the total ESTs (69 of 267 ESTs). (4) There were 58 singletons representing 21.6% of ESTs (58 of 267 ESTs) and 69.9% of the total clusters (58 of 83 clusters), which were unique ESTs and the occurrence rate of these clusters was only once in the library.


A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous.

Xu X, Wang H, Zhang F, Hu Z, Liang S, Liu Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relative proportion of each transcript category from D. sulfurous venom gland cDNA library.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596850&req=5

pone.0139908.g001: Relative proportion of each transcript category from D. sulfurous venom gland cDNA library.
Mentions: The directional full-length cDNA library was generated from the venom glands of D. sulfurous. The average length of the cDNA in the library was about 500 bp, ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 kb. After removing vector, short and poor-quality sequences, 267 high-quality ESTs were randomly generated from the cDNA library. Of the 267 ESTs, 71% (190 of 267 ESTs) might encode putative toxin precursors, 24% (65 of 267 ESTs) were similar to cellular transcripts, and 5% (12 of 267 ESTs) had no significant similarity to any known sequences (Fig 1). The average readable sequence length was approximately 599 bp. 204 non-redundancy sequences from the total 267 ESTs encoded 127 novel putative toxin precursors (GenBank accession numbers, KP777610-KP777736), 65 cellular body proteins (GenBank accession numbers, KP777737-KP777801) and 12 unknown proteins which had very low sequence similarity with any known proteins, respectively. Of the 127 putative toxin precursors, 90 non-redundant mature peptide sequences were obtained. The 267 ESTs assembling resulted in 83 clusters, including 25 contigs and 58 singletons. The abundance distribution of all ESTs was cataloged as follows (Fig 2): (1) Two clusters contained 20–70 ESTs, respectively, which represented 2.4% of the total clusters (2 of 83 clusters) and 32.6% of the total ESTs (87 of 267 ESTs). All of them were predicted to encode toxins. (2) Four clusters included 10–19 ESTs, respectively, which represented 4.8% of the total clusters (4 of 83 clusters) and 19.8% of the total ESTs (53 of 267 ESTs). They might encode toxins and cellular proteins. (3) 19 clusters included 2–9 ESTs, respectively, represented 22.9% of the total clusters (19 of 83 clusters) and 26% of the total ESTs (69 of 267 ESTs). (4) There were 58 singletons representing 21.6% of ESTs (58 of 267 ESTs) and 69.9% of the total clusters (58 of 83 clusters), which were unique ESTs and the occurrence rate of these clusters was only once in the library.

Bottom Line: Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties.This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders.This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, China.

ABSTRACT
Dolomedes sulfurous and Dolomedes mizhoanus are predaceous arthropods catching and feeding on small fish. They live in the same area and have similar habits. Their venoms exhibit some similarities and differences in biochemical and electrophysiological properties. In the present work, we first performed a transcriptomic analysis by constructing the venom gland cDNA library of D. sulfurous and 127 novel putative toxin sequences were consequently identified, which were classified into eight families. This venom gland transcriptome was then compared with that of D. mizhoanus, which revealed that the putative toxins from both spider venoms might have originated from the same gene ancestors although novel toxins were evolved independently in the two spiders. The putative toxins from both spiders contain 6-12 cysteine residues forming seven cysteine patterns. As revealed by blast search, the two venoms are rich in neurotoxins targeting ion channels with pharmacological and therapeutic significance. This study provides insight into the venoms of two closely related species of spider, which will be of use for future investigations into the structure and function of their toxins.

No MeSH data available.