Limits...
The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

Rodríguez-Ruano SM, Martín-Vivaldi M, Martín-Platero AM, López-López JP, Peralta-Sánchez JM, Ruiz-Rodríguez M, Soler JJ, Valdivia E, Martínez-Bueno M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques.Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia).The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

No MeSH data available.


Consensus trees with the taxonomic position of the different bacterial OTUs (ITS) detected in hoopoe uropygial secretions by sequencing the ribosomal intergenic spacer.Panels A and B include OTUs grouped according to each of the two subregions found within the ribosomal intergenic spacer. Labels in nodes indicate the bootstrap mean probability for each clade after 100 repetitions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596831&req=5

pone.0139734.g004: Consensus trees with the taxonomic position of the different bacterial OTUs (ITS) detected in hoopoe uropygial secretions by sequencing the ribosomal intergenic spacer.Panels A and B include OTUs grouped according to each of the two subregions found within the ribosomal intergenic spacer. Labels in nodes indicate the bootstrap mean probability for each clade after 100 repetitions.

Mentions: Taxonomic position inferred for the OTUs detected in the uropygial secretion of female and nestling hoopoes by several different molecular methods. When the sequences were not clearly included within a genus in the trees, the genus most closely related to the sequence is given in parentheses (see Figs 3 and 4).


The Hoopoe's Uropygial Gland Hosts a Bacterial Community Influenced by the Living Conditions of the Bird.

Rodríguez-Ruano SM, Martín-Vivaldi M, Martín-Platero AM, López-López JP, Peralta-Sánchez JM, Ruiz-Rodríguez M, Soler JJ, Valdivia E, Martínez-Bueno M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Consensus trees with the taxonomic position of the different bacterial OTUs (ITS) detected in hoopoe uropygial secretions by sequencing the ribosomal intergenic spacer.Panels A and B include OTUs grouped according to each of the two subregions found within the ribosomal intergenic spacer. Labels in nodes indicate the bootstrap mean probability for each clade after 100 repetitions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596831&req=5

pone.0139734.g004: Consensus trees with the taxonomic position of the different bacterial OTUs (ITS) detected in hoopoe uropygial secretions by sequencing the ribosomal intergenic spacer.Panels A and B include OTUs grouped according to each of the two subregions found within the ribosomal intergenic spacer. Labels in nodes indicate the bootstrap mean probability for each clade after 100 repetitions.
Mentions: Taxonomic position inferred for the OTUs detected in the uropygial secretion of female and nestling hoopoes by several different molecular methods. When the sequences were not clearly included within a genus in the trees, the genus most closely related to the sequence is given in parentheses (see Figs 3 and 4).

Bottom Line: Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques.Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia).The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Molecular methods have revealed that symbiotic systems involving bacteria are mostly based on whole bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity in hoopoe uropygial gland secretion is known to be mainly composed of certain strains of enterococci, but this conclusion is based solely on culture-dependent techniques. This study, by using culture-independent techniques (based on the 16S rDNA and the ribosomal intergenic spacer region) shows that the bacterial community in the uropygial gland secretion is more complex than previously thought and its composition is affected by the living conditions of the bird. Besides the known enterococci, the uropygial gland hosts other facultative anaerobic species and several obligated anaerobic species (mostly clostridia). The bacterial assemblage of this community was largely invariable among study individuals, although differences were detected between captive and wild female hoopoes, with some strains showing significantly higher prevalence in wild birds. These results alter previous views on the hoopoe-bacteria symbiosis and open a new window to further explore this system, delving into the possible sources of symbiotic bacteria (e.g. nest environments, digestive tract, winter quarters) or the possible functions of different bacterial groups in different contexts of parasitism or predation of their hoopoe host.

No MeSH data available.