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Determining the Optimum Power Load in Jump Squat Using the Mean Propulsive Velocity.

Loturco I, Nakamura FY, Tricoli V, Kobal R, Cal Abad CC, Kitamura K, Ugrinowitsch C, Gil S, Pereira LA, González-Badillo JJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether elite athletes from different sports would produce maximum mean propulsive power values at a narrow range of mean propulsive velocities, resulting in similar jump heights.Results indicated that regardless of sport discipline, the athletes' optimum mean propulsive power was achieved at a mean propulsive velocity close to 1.0 m.s(-1) (1.01 ± 0.07 m.s(-1)) and at a jump height close to 20 cm (20.47 ± 1.42 cm).Data were narrowly scattered around these values.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NAR - Nucleus of High Performance in Sport, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Faculty of Sport, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The jump squat is one of the exercises most frequently used to improve lower body power production, which influences sports performance. However, the traditional determination of the specific workload at which power production is maximized (i.e., optimum power load) is time-consuming and requires one-repetition maximum tests. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether elite athletes from different sports would produce maximum mean propulsive power values at a narrow range of mean propulsive velocities, resulting in similar jump heights. One hundred and nine elite athletes from several individual/team sport disciplines underwent repetitions at maximal velocity with progressive loads, starting at 40% of their body mass with increments of 10% to determine the individual optimum power zone. Results indicated that regardless of sport discipline, the athletes' optimum mean propulsive power was achieved at a mean propulsive velocity close to 1.0 m.s(-1) (1.01 ± 0.07 m.s(-1)) and at a jump height close to 20 cm (20.47 ± 1.42 cm). Data were narrowly scattered around these values. Therefore, jump squat optimum power load can be determined simply by means of mean propulsive velocity or jump height determination in training/testing settings, allowing it to be implemented quickly in strength/power training.

No MeSH data available.


Accelerating and decelerating phases during an actual jump squat attempt.The measurement was performed at the optimum power zone. From the take-off (when the velocity begins to decrease) to the final point of the upward movement (at “zero-velocity”) the athlete vertically jumps ≈ 20 cm.
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pone.0140102.g001: Accelerating and decelerating phases during an actual jump squat attempt.The measurement was performed at the optimum power zone. From the take-off (when the velocity begins to decrease) to the final point of the upward movement (at “zero-velocity”) the athlete vertically jumps ≈ 20 cm.

Mentions: All elite athletes involved in this cross-sectional investigation were assessed during the competitive phase of the season, after being familiarized by performing (minimum) six power training sessions, using the same exercise (jump squat), equipment (Smith machine, encoder and contact platform) and experimental procedures as the actual assessment. The subjects were required to refrain from any heavy workout for 3 days prior to the testing day, fast for 2 h before attending the session and avoid caffeine and alcohol consumption for 24 h before the study. As the bar-velocity is the central premise of this methodological research, before each jump squat attempt, the athletes were strongly encouraged to move the bar upward rapidly, jumping as fast and as high as possible. The variables analyzed is this study were: (1) MPP—mean value that refers to the upward portion of the jump squat during which bar-acceleration is greater than acceleration due to gravity; (2) mean propulsive velocity (MPV)—velocity measure which corresponds to the mean velocity of the propulsive phase of each repetition; and (3) jump squat height—the height reached by the athlete (the rise of the center of gravity above the ground) when performing jump squats. For the sake of clarity, Fig 1 shows the accelerating and decelerating phases that occur during the upward portion of a jump squat exercise performed at the optimum power zone.


Determining the Optimum Power Load in Jump Squat Using the Mean Propulsive Velocity.

Loturco I, Nakamura FY, Tricoli V, Kobal R, Cal Abad CC, Kitamura K, Ugrinowitsch C, Gil S, Pereira LA, González-Badillo JJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Accelerating and decelerating phases during an actual jump squat attempt.The measurement was performed at the optimum power zone. From the take-off (when the velocity begins to decrease) to the final point of the upward movement (at “zero-velocity”) the athlete vertically jumps ≈ 20 cm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596801&req=5

pone.0140102.g001: Accelerating and decelerating phases during an actual jump squat attempt.The measurement was performed at the optimum power zone. From the take-off (when the velocity begins to decrease) to the final point of the upward movement (at “zero-velocity”) the athlete vertically jumps ≈ 20 cm.
Mentions: All elite athletes involved in this cross-sectional investigation were assessed during the competitive phase of the season, after being familiarized by performing (minimum) six power training sessions, using the same exercise (jump squat), equipment (Smith machine, encoder and contact platform) and experimental procedures as the actual assessment. The subjects were required to refrain from any heavy workout for 3 days prior to the testing day, fast for 2 h before attending the session and avoid caffeine and alcohol consumption for 24 h before the study. As the bar-velocity is the central premise of this methodological research, before each jump squat attempt, the athletes were strongly encouraged to move the bar upward rapidly, jumping as fast and as high as possible. The variables analyzed is this study were: (1) MPP—mean value that refers to the upward portion of the jump squat during which bar-acceleration is greater than acceleration due to gravity; (2) mean propulsive velocity (MPV)—velocity measure which corresponds to the mean velocity of the propulsive phase of each repetition; and (3) jump squat height—the height reached by the athlete (the rise of the center of gravity above the ground) when performing jump squats. For the sake of clarity, Fig 1 shows the accelerating and decelerating phases that occur during the upward portion of a jump squat exercise performed at the optimum power zone.

Bottom Line: Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether elite athletes from different sports would produce maximum mean propulsive power values at a narrow range of mean propulsive velocities, resulting in similar jump heights.Results indicated that regardless of sport discipline, the athletes' optimum mean propulsive power was achieved at a mean propulsive velocity close to 1.0 m.s(-1) (1.01 ± 0.07 m.s(-1)) and at a jump height close to 20 cm (20.47 ± 1.42 cm).Data were narrowly scattered around these values.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NAR - Nucleus of High Performance in Sport, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Faculty of Sport, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The jump squat is one of the exercises most frequently used to improve lower body power production, which influences sports performance. However, the traditional determination of the specific workload at which power production is maximized (i.e., optimum power load) is time-consuming and requires one-repetition maximum tests. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether elite athletes from different sports would produce maximum mean propulsive power values at a narrow range of mean propulsive velocities, resulting in similar jump heights. One hundred and nine elite athletes from several individual/team sport disciplines underwent repetitions at maximal velocity with progressive loads, starting at 40% of their body mass with increments of 10% to determine the individual optimum power zone. Results indicated that regardless of sport discipline, the athletes' optimum mean propulsive power was achieved at a mean propulsive velocity close to 1.0 m.s(-1) (1.01 ± 0.07 m.s(-1)) and at a jump height close to 20 cm (20.47 ± 1.42 cm). Data were narrowly scattered around these values. Therefore, jump squat optimum power load can be determined simply by means of mean propulsive velocity or jump height determination in training/testing settings, allowing it to be implemented quickly in strength/power training.

No MeSH data available.