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Mutagenicity of biodiesel or diesel exhaust particles and the effect of engine operating conditions.

Kisin ER, Shi XC, Keane MJ, Bugarski AB, Shvedova AA - J Environ Eng Ecol Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions.Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD.Further research is needed to investigate the health effect of biodiesel as well as efficiency of DOC or other exhaust aftertreatment systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effect Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Changing the fuel supply from petroleum based ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a viable option for controlling exposures to particulate material (PM). This is critical in the mining industry where approximately 28,000 underground miners are potentially exposed to relatively high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This study was conducted to investigate the mutagenic potential of diesel engine emissions (DEE) from neat (B100) and blended (B50) soy-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in comparison with ULSD PM using different engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

Methods: The DPM samples were collected for engine equipped with either a standard muffler or a combination of the muffler and diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) that was operated at four different steady-state modes. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on the organic solvent extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay.

Results: The results indicate that mutagenic activity of DPM was strongly affected by fuels, engine operating conditions, and exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mutagenicity was increased with the fraction of biodiesel in the fuel. While the mutagenic activity was observed in B50 and B100 samples collected from both light-and heavy-load operating conditions, the ULSD samples were mutagenic only at light-load conditions. The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions. This was not the case when engine was fueled with ULSD. Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD.

Conclusions: Therefore, the results indicate that DPM from neat or blended biodiesel has a higher mutagenic potency than that one of ULSD. Further research is needed to investigate the health effect of biodiesel as well as efficiency of DOC or other exhaust aftertreatment systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of engine operating conditions on mutagenic activity of B100 samples collected for the engine fitted with mufflerB100 samples (0, 13.3, 40 or 120 μg/plate) were incubated at 37° C with the Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without S9 microsomal activation. Clear columns – mode M1; light gray columns – mode M2; Dark gray columns – mode M3; Black columns – mode M4. Data represent mean values (+SEM) of the average number of revertant colonies per sample. Each sample was tested twice in two separate experiments. *positive responses, as evidenced by the number of revertant colonies being at least two-fold greater than the respective control value.
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Figure 5: Effect of engine operating conditions on mutagenic activity of B100 samples collected for the engine fitted with mufflerB100 samples (0, 13.3, 40 or 120 μg/plate) were incubated at 37° C with the Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without S9 microsomal activation. Clear columns – mode M1; light gray columns – mode M2; Dark gray columns – mode M3; Black columns – mode M4. Data represent mean values (+SEM) of the average number of revertant colonies per sample. Each sample was tested twice in two separate experiments. *positive responses, as evidenced by the number of revertant colonies being at least two-fold greater than the respective control value.

Mentions: The effects of the four engine operating conditions were studied using the samples collected from engine equipped with a muffler (Table 1 and Figures 3,4 and 5). When engine was fueled with ULSD, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected for light-load engine operating conditions (M1 and M3), but not for heavy-load engine operating conditions (M2 and M4), and only for the highest studied concentration of 120 μg/plate (Figure 3). When engine was fueled with B50 (Figure 4) and B100 (Figure 5), the mutagenic activity was detected at both light-load (M1 and M3) and one of the heavy-load operating conditions (M2 but not M4). Increase in mutagenic activity was concentration dependent for all those 3 modes with the positive response at two highest concentrations (40 and 120 μg/plate). At the lowest studied concentration of 13.3 μg/plate, the mutagenic activity was found only for the engine fueled with B100 and operated at M2 condition (Figure 5).


Mutagenicity of biodiesel or diesel exhaust particles and the effect of engine operating conditions.

Kisin ER, Shi XC, Keane MJ, Bugarski AB, Shvedova AA - J Environ Eng Ecol Sci (2013)

Effect of engine operating conditions on mutagenic activity of B100 samples collected for the engine fitted with mufflerB100 samples (0, 13.3, 40 or 120 μg/plate) were incubated at 37° C with the Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without S9 microsomal activation. Clear columns – mode M1; light gray columns – mode M2; Dark gray columns – mode M3; Black columns – mode M4. Data represent mean values (+SEM) of the average number of revertant colonies per sample. Each sample was tested twice in two separate experiments. *positive responses, as evidenced by the number of revertant colonies being at least two-fold greater than the respective control value.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596798&req=5

Figure 5: Effect of engine operating conditions on mutagenic activity of B100 samples collected for the engine fitted with mufflerB100 samples (0, 13.3, 40 or 120 μg/plate) were incubated at 37° C with the Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 without S9 microsomal activation. Clear columns – mode M1; light gray columns – mode M2; Dark gray columns – mode M3; Black columns – mode M4. Data represent mean values (+SEM) of the average number of revertant colonies per sample. Each sample was tested twice in two separate experiments. *positive responses, as evidenced by the number of revertant colonies being at least two-fold greater than the respective control value.
Mentions: The effects of the four engine operating conditions were studied using the samples collected from engine equipped with a muffler (Table 1 and Figures 3,4 and 5). When engine was fueled with ULSD, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected for light-load engine operating conditions (M1 and M3), but not for heavy-load engine operating conditions (M2 and M4), and only for the highest studied concentration of 120 μg/plate (Figure 3). When engine was fueled with B50 (Figure 4) and B100 (Figure 5), the mutagenic activity was detected at both light-load (M1 and M3) and one of the heavy-load operating conditions (M2 but not M4). Increase in mutagenic activity was concentration dependent for all those 3 modes with the positive response at two highest concentrations (40 and 120 μg/plate). At the lowest studied concentration of 13.3 μg/plate, the mutagenic activity was found only for the engine fueled with B100 and operated at M2 condition (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions.Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD.Further research is needed to investigate the health effect of biodiesel as well as efficiency of DOC or other exhaust aftertreatment systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effect Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown WV, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Changing the fuel supply from petroleum based ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a viable option for controlling exposures to particulate material (PM). This is critical in the mining industry where approximately 28,000 underground miners are potentially exposed to relatively high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This study was conducted to investigate the mutagenic potential of diesel engine emissions (DEE) from neat (B100) and blended (B50) soy-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in comparison with ULSD PM using different engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

Methods: The DPM samples were collected for engine equipped with either a standard muffler or a combination of the muffler and diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) that was operated at four different steady-state modes. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on the organic solvent extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay.

Results: The results indicate that mutagenic activity of DPM was strongly affected by fuels, engine operating conditions, and exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mutagenicity was increased with the fraction of biodiesel in the fuel. While the mutagenic activity was observed in B50 and B100 samples collected from both light-and heavy-load operating conditions, the ULSD samples were mutagenic only at light-load conditions. The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions. This was not the case when engine was fueled with ULSD. Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD.

Conclusions: Therefore, the results indicate that DPM from neat or blended biodiesel has a higher mutagenic potency than that one of ULSD. Further research is needed to investigate the health effect of biodiesel as well as efficiency of DOC or other exhaust aftertreatment systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus