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A Path to Sleep Is through the Eye(1,2,3).

Morin LP - eNeuro (2015)

Bottom Line: The visual input route is a practical avenue to follow in pursuit of the neural circuitry and mechanisms governing sleep and arousal in small nocturnal mammals and the organizational principles may be similar in diurnal humans.Photosomnolence studies are likely to be particularly advantageous because the timing of sleep is largely under experimenter control.Moreover, the experimental designs and associated results benefit from a substantial amount of existing neuroanatomical and pharmacological literature that provides a solid framework guiding the conduct and interpretation of future investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, New York 11794.

ABSTRACT
Light has long been known to modulate sleep, but recent discoveries support its use as an effective nocturnal stimulus for eliciting sleep in certain rodents. "Photosomnolence" is mediated by classical and ganglion cell photoreceptors and occurs despite the ongoing high levels of locomotion at the time of stimulus onset. Brief photic stimuli trigger rapid locomotor suppression, sleep, and a large drop in core body temperature (Tc; Phase 1), followed by a relatively fixed duration interval of sleep (Phase 2) and recovery (Phase 3) to pre-sleep activity levels. Additional light can lengthen Phase 2. Potential retinal pathways through which the sleep system might be light-activated are described and the potential roles of orexin (hypocretin) and melanin-concentrating hormone are discussed. The visual input route is a practical avenue to follow in pursuit of the neural circuitry and mechanisms governing sleep and arousal in small nocturnal mammals and the organizational principles may be similar in diurnal humans. Photosomnolence studies are likely to be particularly advantageous because the timing of sleep is largely under experimenter control. Sleep can now be effectively studied using uncomplicated, nonintrusive methods with behavior evaluation software tools; surgery for EEG electrode placement is avoidable. The research protocol for light-induced sleep is easily implemented and useful for assessing the effects of experimental manipulations on the sleep induction pathway. Moreover, the experimental designs and associated results benefit from a substantial amount of existing neuroanatomical and pharmacological literature that provides a solid framework guiding the conduct and interpretation of future investigations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simultaneously recorded patterns of wheel running (RPM; black solid lines) and core body temperature (red broken lines) in three individual mice housed under LD12:12 and, during the night the data were collected, exposed at ZT13 (time 0 is stimulus onset) to a 5 min light pulse (A, B, narrow white area) and a 1 h light pulse (C, broad white area). The arrowheads in A and B indicate portions of the records during which Tc has risen in advance of recovered locomotion. The asterisk in C identifies a rise in Tc and an aborted return to normal. Despite the increase in Tc, the simultaneously recorded wheel running does not correspondingly increase from its level of complete suppression during light exposure. After Figure 3 in Studholme et al. (2013).
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Figure 1: Simultaneously recorded patterns of wheel running (RPM; black solid lines) and core body temperature (red broken lines) in three individual mice housed under LD12:12 and, during the night the data were collected, exposed at ZT13 (time 0 is stimulus onset) to a 5 min light pulse (A, B, narrow white area) and a 1 h light pulse (C, broad white area). The arrowheads in A and B indicate portions of the records during which Tc has risen in advance of recovered locomotion. The asterisk in C identifies a rise in Tc and an aborted return to normal. Despite the increase in Tc, the simultaneously recorded wheel running does not correspondingly increase from its level of complete suppression during light exposure. After Figure 3 in Studholme et al. (2013).

Mentions: Experimental application of nocturnal photic stimuli considerably shorter than those favored by Mrosovsky has provided evidence that the typical locomotor pattern has three distinct phases (Fig. 1). Each phase has its own particular significant features that require further experimental attention. In Phase 1, the Induction phase, the initial light exposure occurs and behavioral state changes from a high arousal/activity level to behavioral quiescence and sleep. Phase two is the Sleep interval. Phase three is the interval of Recovery from sleep and the return to the pre-light level of activity.


A Path to Sleep Is through the Eye(1,2,3).

Morin LP - eNeuro (2015)

Simultaneously recorded patterns of wheel running (RPM; black solid lines) and core body temperature (red broken lines) in three individual mice housed under LD12:12 and, during the night the data were collected, exposed at ZT13 (time 0 is stimulus onset) to a 5 min light pulse (A, B, narrow white area) and a 1 h light pulse (C, broad white area). The arrowheads in A and B indicate portions of the records during which Tc has risen in advance of recovered locomotion. The asterisk in C identifies a rise in Tc and an aborted return to normal. Despite the increase in Tc, the simultaneously recorded wheel running does not correspondingly increase from its level of complete suppression during light exposure. After Figure 3 in Studholme et al. (2013).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596090&req=5

Figure 1: Simultaneously recorded patterns of wheel running (RPM; black solid lines) and core body temperature (red broken lines) in three individual mice housed under LD12:12 and, during the night the data were collected, exposed at ZT13 (time 0 is stimulus onset) to a 5 min light pulse (A, B, narrow white area) and a 1 h light pulse (C, broad white area). The arrowheads in A and B indicate portions of the records during which Tc has risen in advance of recovered locomotion. The asterisk in C identifies a rise in Tc and an aborted return to normal. Despite the increase in Tc, the simultaneously recorded wheel running does not correspondingly increase from its level of complete suppression during light exposure. After Figure 3 in Studholme et al. (2013).
Mentions: Experimental application of nocturnal photic stimuli considerably shorter than those favored by Mrosovsky has provided evidence that the typical locomotor pattern has three distinct phases (Fig. 1). Each phase has its own particular significant features that require further experimental attention. In Phase 1, the Induction phase, the initial light exposure occurs and behavioral state changes from a high arousal/activity level to behavioral quiescence and sleep. Phase two is the Sleep interval. Phase three is the interval of Recovery from sleep and the return to the pre-light level of activity.

Bottom Line: The visual input route is a practical avenue to follow in pursuit of the neural circuitry and mechanisms governing sleep and arousal in small nocturnal mammals and the organizational principles may be similar in diurnal humans.Photosomnolence studies are likely to be particularly advantageous because the timing of sleep is largely under experimenter control.Moreover, the experimental designs and associated results benefit from a substantial amount of existing neuroanatomical and pharmacological literature that provides a solid framework guiding the conduct and interpretation of future investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook University , Stony Brook, New York 11794.

ABSTRACT
Light has long been known to modulate sleep, but recent discoveries support its use as an effective nocturnal stimulus for eliciting sleep in certain rodents. "Photosomnolence" is mediated by classical and ganglion cell photoreceptors and occurs despite the ongoing high levels of locomotion at the time of stimulus onset. Brief photic stimuli trigger rapid locomotor suppression, sleep, and a large drop in core body temperature (Tc; Phase 1), followed by a relatively fixed duration interval of sleep (Phase 2) and recovery (Phase 3) to pre-sleep activity levels. Additional light can lengthen Phase 2. Potential retinal pathways through which the sleep system might be light-activated are described and the potential roles of orexin (hypocretin) and melanin-concentrating hormone are discussed. The visual input route is a practical avenue to follow in pursuit of the neural circuitry and mechanisms governing sleep and arousal in small nocturnal mammals and the organizational principles may be similar in diurnal humans. Photosomnolence studies are likely to be particularly advantageous because the timing of sleep is largely under experimenter control. Sleep can now be effectively studied using uncomplicated, nonintrusive methods with behavior evaluation software tools; surgery for EEG electrode placement is avoidable. The research protocol for light-induced sleep is easily implemented and useful for assessing the effects of experimental manipulations on the sleep induction pathway. Moreover, the experimental designs and associated results benefit from a substantial amount of existing neuroanatomical and pharmacological literature that provides a solid framework guiding the conduct and interpretation of future investigations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus