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Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition(1,2,3).

Becker S, Gandhi W, Kwan S, Ahmed AK, Schweinhardt P - eNeuro (2015)

Bottom Line: We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state.Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced.Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , 68159 Mannheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean amplitudes and 95% confidence intervals of skin conductance responses in the test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. post hoc comparisons: t*p < 0.10; **p < 0.003 after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
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Figure 5: Mean amplitudes and 95% confidence intervals of skin conductance responses in the test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. post hoc comparisons: t*p < 0.10; **p < 0.003 after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.

Mentions: Skin conductance responses were higher in the test compared with the control trials across outcomes, indicated by a main effect of trial type (F(60) = 11.20, p = 0.01ap). Further, skin conductance responses showed an interaction effect of outcome and trial type (F(54) = 6.79, p = 0.02aq). post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference between test and control trials for the no-change outcome, with higher skin conductance responses in test trials compared with control trials (Fig. 5; post hoc comparison, p < 0.001, significant after Bonferroni correction, Cohen’s d = 0.96ar). In addition, a trend for differences in skin conductance responses for the pain increase outcome between test and control trials was observed, with higher responses in test trials compared with control trials (Fig. 5; post hoc comparison, p = 0.07, Cohen’s d = 0.42as), but no difference for the pain relief outcome (p = 0.308at). These results indicate that participants were more aroused in the test trials compared with the control trials for the no-change outcome, with a similar tendency for the pain increase outcome, but not for the pain relief outcome.


Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition(1,2,3).

Becker S, Gandhi W, Kwan S, Ahmed AK, Schweinhardt P - eNeuro (2015)

Mean amplitudes and 95% confidence intervals of skin conductance responses in the test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. post hoc comparisons: t*p < 0.10; **p < 0.003 after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596013&req=5

Figure 5: Mean amplitudes and 95% confidence intervals of skin conductance responses in the test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. post hoc comparisons: t*p < 0.10; **p < 0.003 after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
Mentions: Skin conductance responses were higher in the test compared with the control trials across outcomes, indicated by a main effect of trial type (F(60) = 11.20, p = 0.01ap). Further, skin conductance responses showed an interaction effect of outcome and trial type (F(54) = 6.79, p = 0.02aq). post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference between test and control trials for the no-change outcome, with higher skin conductance responses in test trials compared with control trials (Fig. 5; post hoc comparison, p < 0.001, significant after Bonferroni correction, Cohen’s d = 0.96ar). In addition, a trend for differences in skin conductance responses for the pain increase outcome between test and control trials was observed, with higher responses in test trials compared with control trials (Fig. 5; post hoc comparison, p = 0.07, Cohen’s d = 0.42as), but no difference for the pain relief outcome (p = 0.308at). These results indicate that participants were more aroused in the test trials compared with the control trials for the no-change outcome, with a similar tendency for the pain increase outcome, but not for the pain relief outcome.

Bottom Line: We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state.Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced.Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , 68159 Mannheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus