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Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition(1,2,3).

Becker S, Gandhi W, Kwan S, Ahmed AK, Schweinhardt P - eNeuro (2015)

Bottom Line: We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state.Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced.Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , 68159 Mannheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Means and 95% confidence intervals of behaviorally assessed pain perception for test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. Negative values indicate pain sensitization relative to the beginning of each trial, and positive values indicate habituation. post hoc comparisons: *p < 0.017, significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
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Figure 2: Means and 95% confidence intervals of behaviorally assessed pain perception for test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. Negative values indicate pain sensitization relative to the beginning of each trial, and positive values indicate habituation. post hoc comparisons: *p < 0.017, significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.

Mentions: As expected with ∼20-s-long heat pain stimuli of moderate to high intensity, participants sensitized within trials to the thermal stimulation. In the no-change condition, the self-adjusted temperature was on average 0.8°C lower at the end of the trial compared with the beginning of the trial (mean, −0.80°C; SD, 1.40°C). The self-adjusted temperature was across trial types lower for the pain relief outcome and higher for the pain increase outcome compared with the no-change outcome (Fig. 2; main effect “outcome”: F(25) = 162.97, p < 0.001a; post hoc comparison winning vs no change, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.72b; losing vs no change, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.42c; both were significant after Bonferroni correction), probably induced by the temperature decrease and increase in the outcome interval of the wheel of fortune game. Differences in sensitization or habituation across conditions could not be explained by different durations of the trials (mixed-model ANOVA, interaction outcome × trial type: F(150) = 0.23, p = 0.80d; all post hoc comparisons, p > 0.25).


Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition(1,2,3).

Becker S, Gandhi W, Kwan S, Ahmed AK, Schweinhardt P - eNeuro (2015)

Means and 95% confidence intervals of behaviorally assessed pain perception for test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. Negative values indicate pain sensitization relative to the beginning of each trial, and positive values indicate habituation. post hoc comparisons: *p < 0.017, significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596013&req=5

Figure 2: Means and 95% confidence intervals of behaviorally assessed pain perception for test and control trials in the pain relief, pain increase, and no-change outcomes. Negative values indicate pain sensitization relative to the beginning of each trial, and positive values indicate habituation. post hoc comparisons: *p < 0.017, significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.
Mentions: As expected with ∼20-s-long heat pain stimuli of moderate to high intensity, participants sensitized within trials to the thermal stimulation. In the no-change condition, the self-adjusted temperature was on average 0.8°C lower at the end of the trial compared with the beginning of the trial (mean, −0.80°C; SD, 1.40°C). The self-adjusted temperature was across trial types lower for the pain relief outcome and higher for the pain increase outcome compared with the no-change outcome (Fig. 2; main effect “outcome”: F(25) = 162.97, p < 0.001a; post hoc comparison winning vs no change, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.72b; losing vs no change, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.42c; both were significant after Bonferroni correction), probably induced by the temperature decrease and increase in the outcome interval of the wheel of fortune game. Differences in sensitization or habituation across conditions could not be explained by different durations of the trials (mixed-model ANOVA, interaction outcome × trial type: F(150) = 0.23, p = 0.80d; all post hoc comparisons, p > 0.25).

Bottom Line: We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state.Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced.Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University , Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C7, Canada ; Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University , 68159 Mannheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus