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Macroscopic and high-throughput printing of aligned nanostructured polymer semiconductors for MHz large-area electronics.

Bucella SG, Luzio A, Gann E, Thomsen L, McNeill CR, Pace G, Perinot A, Chen Z, Facchetti A, Caironi M - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: As opposed to the deposition of highly crystalline films, orientational alignment of polymer chains, albeit commonly achieved by non-scalable/slow bulk alignment schemes, is a more robust approach towards large-area electronics.Our approach enables directional self-assembling of polymer chains exhibiting large transport anisotropy and a mobility up to 6.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), allowing very simple device architectures to operate at 3.3 MHz.Thus, the proposed deposition strategy is exceptionally promising for mass manufacturing of high-performance polymer circuits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, Milano 20133, Italy.

ABSTRACT
High-mobility semiconducting polymers offer the opportunity to develop flexible and large-area electronics for several applications, including wearable, portable and distributed sensors, monitoring and actuating devices. An enabler of this technology is a scalable printing process achieving uniform electrical performances over large area. As opposed to the deposition of highly crystalline films, orientational alignment of polymer chains, albeit commonly achieved by non-scalable/slow bulk alignment schemes, is a more robust approach towards large-area electronics. By combining pre-aggregating solvents for formulating the semiconductor and by adopting a room temperature wired bar-coating technique, here we demonstrate the fast deposition of submonolayers and nanostructured films of a model electron-transporting polymer. Our approach enables directional self-assembling of polymer chains exhibiting large transport anisotropy and a mobility up to 6.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), allowing very simple device architectures to operate at 3.3 MHz. Thus, the proposed deposition strategy is exceptionally promising for mass manufacturing of high-performance polymer circuits.

No MeSH data available.


Electrical properties of FETs.(a) Sketch of the top gate bottom contact FETs structure employed; the probing directions are clearly represented with respect to the printing direction and indicated as para (printing parallel to the source to drain electric field) and perp (printing perpendicular to the source to drain electric field). (b) Typical transfer characteristic in linear (dashed) and saturation (continuous) regime of a submonolayer based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm; currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼106 in the linear regime. (c) Typical transfer characteristic plots in linear (dashed) and saturation (solid) regimes of 10 nm thick film based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm with the fibrils axis oriented parallel (blue) and perpendicular (red) to the probing direction; in the linear regime, currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼107 for the parallel case and ∼106 for the perpendicular case. (d) Typical effective linear and saturation mobility as a function of the gate voltage in the perpendicular and parallel direction: the anisotropy is marked both with a high and a low lateral applied voltage. (e) Average saturation mobilities (circles) with their standard deviation (bars) for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area in both parallel and perpendicular directions, compared to a distribution obtained from 8 spin-coated FETs. (f) Distribution of the saturation mobility in the parallel case for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area.
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f3: Electrical properties of FETs.(a) Sketch of the top gate bottom contact FETs structure employed; the probing directions are clearly represented with respect to the printing direction and indicated as para (printing parallel to the source to drain electric field) and perp (printing perpendicular to the source to drain electric field). (b) Typical transfer characteristic in linear (dashed) and saturation (continuous) regime of a submonolayer based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm; currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼106 in the linear regime. (c) Typical transfer characteristic plots in linear (dashed) and saturation (solid) regimes of 10 nm thick film based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm with the fibrils axis oriented parallel (blue) and perpendicular (red) to the probing direction; in the linear regime, currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼107 for the parallel case and ∼106 for the perpendicular case. (d) Typical effective linear and saturation mobility as a function of the gate voltage in the perpendicular and parallel direction: the anisotropy is marked both with a high and a low lateral applied voltage. (e) Average saturation mobilities (circles) with their standard deviation (bars) for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area in both parallel and perpendicular directions, compared to a distribution obtained from 8 spin-coated FETs. (f) Distribution of the saturation mobility in the parallel case for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area.

Mentions: The intriguing nanostructure of the bar-printed films lead us to study the electrical properties of both the submonolayer and the highly oriented fibrils films in top-gate bottom-contact field-effect transistors, with films printed both parallel (‘para') and perpendicular (‘perp') to the source to drain electric field (Fig. 3a). The transfer curve of Fig. 3b and the mobility-voltage plots of Supplementary Fig. 6 demonstrate that FETs with a submonolayer semiconductor channel exhibit ideal field-effect characteristics without significant differences along the two printing directions. This result is in agreement with AFM and NEXAFS findings of the submonolayer film structural isotropy. An average effective saturation mobility (VDS=60 V) of 0.14 cm2 V−1 s−1 and linear mobility (VDS=5 V) of 0.10 cm2 V−1 s−1 are conservatively extracted by considering the entire geometrical channel width, despite a semiconductor channel coverage of only ∼50% (Fig. 1i). These are unrivalled values for a device where the accumulated channel is confined to a single molecular strand47484950, comprising self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors515253, where to achieve a mobility of 0.08 cm2 V−1 s−1 the use of specific anchoring groups is required.


Macroscopic and high-throughput printing of aligned nanostructured polymer semiconductors for MHz large-area electronics.

Bucella SG, Luzio A, Gann E, Thomsen L, McNeill CR, Pace G, Perinot A, Chen Z, Facchetti A, Caironi M - Nat Commun (2015)

Electrical properties of FETs.(a) Sketch of the top gate bottom contact FETs structure employed; the probing directions are clearly represented with respect to the printing direction and indicated as para (printing parallel to the source to drain electric field) and perp (printing perpendicular to the source to drain electric field). (b) Typical transfer characteristic in linear (dashed) and saturation (continuous) regime of a submonolayer based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm; currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼106 in the linear regime. (c) Typical transfer characteristic plots in linear (dashed) and saturation (solid) regimes of 10 nm thick film based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm with the fibrils axis oriented parallel (blue) and perpendicular (red) to the probing direction; in the linear regime, currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼107 for the parallel case and ∼106 for the perpendicular case. (d) Typical effective linear and saturation mobility as a function of the gate voltage in the perpendicular and parallel direction: the anisotropy is marked both with a high and a low lateral applied voltage. (e) Average saturation mobilities (circles) with their standard deviation (bars) for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area in both parallel and perpendicular directions, compared to a distribution obtained from 8 spin-coated FETs. (f) Distribution of the saturation mobility in the parallel case for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4596007&req=5

f3: Electrical properties of FETs.(a) Sketch of the top gate bottom contact FETs structure employed; the probing directions are clearly represented with respect to the printing direction and indicated as para (printing parallel to the source to drain electric field) and perp (printing perpendicular to the source to drain electric field). (b) Typical transfer characteristic in linear (dashed) and saturation (continuous) regime of a submonolayer based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm; currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼106 in the linear regime. (c) Typical transfer characteristic plots in linear (dashed) and saturation (solid) regimes of 10 nm thick film based FETs with W=2 mm and L=20 μm with the fibrils axis oriented parallel (blue) and perpendicular (red) to the probing direction; in the linear regime, currents ON/OFF ratio is ∼107 for the parallel case and ∼106 for the perpendicular case. (d) Typical effective linear and saturation mobility as a function of the gate voltage in the perpendicular and parallel direction: the anisotropy is marked both with a high and a low lateral applied voltage. (e) Average saturation mobilities (circles) with their standard deviation (bars) for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area in both parallel and perpendicular directions, compared to a distribution obtained from 8 spin-coated FETs. (f) Distribution of the saturation mobility in the parallel case for 56 FETs coated on an 8 × 8 cm2 area.
Mentions: The intriguing nanostructure of the bar-printed films lead us to study the electrical properties of both the submonolayer and the highly oriented fibrils films in top-gate bottom-contact field-effect transistors, with films printed both parallel (‘para') and perpendicular (‘perp') to the source to drain electric field (Fig. 3a). The transfer curve of Fig. 3b and the mobility-voltage plots of Supplementary Fig. 6 demonstrate that FETs with a submonolayer semiconductor channel exhibit ideal field-effect characteristics without significant differences along the two printing directions. This result is in agreement with AFM and NEXAFS findings of the submonolayer film structural isotropy. An average effective saturation mobility (VDS=60 V) of 0.14 cm2 V−1 s−1 and linear mobility (VDS=5 V) of 0.10 cm2 V−1 s−1 are conservatively extracted by considering the entire geometrical channel width, despite a semiconductor channel coverage of only ∼50% (Fig. 1i). These are unrivalled values for a device where the accumulated channel is confined to a single molecular strand47484950, comprising self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors515253, where to achieve a mobility of 0.08 cm2 V−1 s−1 the use of specific anchoring groups is required.

Bottom Line: As opposed to the deposition of highly crystalline films, orientational alignment of polymer chains, albeit commonly achieved by non-scalable/slow bulk alignment schemes, is a more robust approach towards large-area electronics.Our approach enables directional self-assembling of polymer chains exhibiting large transport anisotropy and a mobility up to 6.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), allowing very simple device architectures to operate at 3.3 MHz.Thus, the proposed deposition strategy is exceptionally promising for mass manufacturing of high-performance polymer circuits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, Milano 20133, Italy.

ABSTRACT
High-mobility semiconducting polymers offer the opportunity to develop flexible and large-area electronics for several applications, including wearable, portable and distributed sensors, monitoring and actuating devices. An enabler of this technology is a scalable printing process achieving uniform electrical performances over large area. As opposed to the deposition of highly crystalline films, orientational alignment of polymer chains, albeit commonly achieved by non-scalable/slow bulk alignment schemes, is a more robust approach towards large-area electronics. By combining pre-aggregating solvents for formulating the semiconductor and by adopting a room temperature wired bar-coating technique, here we demonstrate the fast deposition of submonolayers and nanostructured films of a model electron-transporting polymer. Our approach enables directional self-assembling of polymer chains exhibiting large transport anisotropy and a mobility up to 6.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), allowing very simple device architectures to operate at 3.3 MHz. Thus, the proposed deposition strategy is exceptionally promising for mass manufacturing of high-performance polymer circuits.

No MeSH data available.