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Transcriptomic analysis reveals numerous diverse protein kinases and transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia.

Ma C, Wang H, Macnish AJ, Estrada-Melo AC, Lin J, Chang Y, Reid MS, Jiang CZ - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation.Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation.The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California , Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration. These regulators transduce signal cascades of molecular pathways, including the up-regulation of ABA-dependent and independent drought stress pathways and the activation of protective mechanisms for coping with oxidative damage. Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation. Secondary metabolism may participate in the desiccation tolerance of M. flabellifolia as indicated by increases in transcript abundance of genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation. During rehydration, the transcriptome is also enriched in transcripts of genes encoding TFs and PKs, as well as genes involved in photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hierarchical clustering analysis of early dehydration up-regulated transcription factors (a) and protein kinases (b) in M. flabellifolia. Log2 ratios are used to express relative transcript abundance at the indicated percentage of IFW under dehydration (De-) or at the indicated time of rehydration (Re-) of leaves versus hydrated leaves. Red squares indicate increased abundance and blue squares indicate decreased abundance.
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fig8: Hierarchical clustering analysis of early dehydration up-regulated transcription factors (a) and protein kinases (b) in M. flabellifolia. Log2 ratios are used to express relative transcript abundance at the indicated percentage of IFW under dehydration (De-) or at the indicated time of rehydration (Re-) of leaves versus hydrated leaves. Red squares indicate increased abundance and blue squares indicate decreased abundance.

Mentions: To identify early responsive regulatory genes, the expression pattern of differentially transcribed TFs and PKs was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (Figure 7). The transcript abundance of 53 TFs and 91 PKs peaked early in dehydration (Figure 8, Supplementary Files 8 and 9), indicating that broad regulatory networks are quickly employed to coordinate global transcriptional reprogramming during desiccation of M. flabellifolia. Among the up-regulated TFs during early dehydration, the strongest induction was observed for genes encoding putative DREB family members (comp45691_c0_seq1, comp42806_c0_seq1, Supplementary File 8). The DREB TFs are well-known regulators of ABA-independent drought stress signaling pathways in other plant species.9,46,67 In addition, a total of nine genes encoding WRKY family members were included among the up-regulated TFs in early dehydration, making the WRKY family the biggest group of early dehydration up-regulated TFs (Supplementary File 8). Furthermore, among the up-regulated PKs, the LRK10 L kinase family is one of the largest groups in during early dehydration (13 out of total 91 PKs) (Supplementary File 9), suggesting that LRK10 L kinases may be important upstream regulators of rapid responses to water deficit. For example, the transcript abundance of a DTG (comp49162_c0_seq1) encoding an LRK10 L kinase increased nearly 120-fold in early dehydration (Supplementary File 9). LRK10 L genes have previously been reported to be associated with resistance to pathogen infection.68–70 Functional characterization of these LRK10 L kinases will be an important step toward elucidating their roles in desiccation tolerance.


Transcriptomic analysis reveals numerous diverse protein kinases and transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia.

Ma C, Wang H, Macnish AJ, Estrada-Melo AC, Lin J, Chang Y, Reid MS, Jiang CZ - Hortic Res (2015)

Hierarchical clustering analysis of early dehydration up-regulated transcription factors (a) and protein kinases (b) in M. flabellifolia. Log2 ratios are used to express relative transcript abundance at the indicated percentage of IFW under dehydration (De-) or at the indicated time of rehydration (Re-) of leaves versus hydrated leaves. Red squares indicate increased abundance and blue squares indicate decreased abundance.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595987&req=5

fig8: Hierarchical clustering analysis of early dehydration up-regulated transcription factors (a) and protein kinases (b) in M. flabellifolia. Log2 ratios are used to express relative transcript abundance at the indicated percentage of IFW under dehydration (De-) or at the indicated time of rehydration (Re-) of leaves versus hydrated leaves. Red squares indicate increased abundance and blue squares indicate decreased abundance.
Mentions: To identify early responsive regulatory genes, the expression pattern of differentially transcribed TFs and PKs was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (Figure 7). The transcript abundance of 53 TFs and 91 PKs peaked early in dehydration (Figure 8, Supplementary Files 8 and 9), indicating that broad regulatory networks are quickly employed to coordinate global transcriptional reprogramming during desiccation of M. flabellifolia. Among the up-regulated TFs during early dehydration, the strongest induction was observed for genes encoding putative DREB family members (comp45691_c0_seq1, comp42806_c0_seq1, Supplementary File 8). The DREB TFs are well-known regulators of ABA-independent drought stress signaling pathways in other plant species.9,46,67 In addition, a total of nine genes encoding WRKY family members were included among the up-regulated TFs in early dehydration, making the WRKY family the biggest group of early dehydration up-regulated TFs (Supplementary File 8). Furthermore, among the up-regulated PKs, the LRK10 L kinase family is one of the largest groups in during early dehydration (13 out of total 91 PKs) (Supplementary File 9), suggesting that LRK10 L kinases may be important upstream regulators of rapid responses to water deficit. For example, the transcript abundance of a DTG (comp49162_c0_seq1) encoding an LRK10 L kinase increased nearly 120-fold in early dehydration (Supplementary File 9). LRK10 L genes have previously been reported to be associated with resistance to pathogen infection.68–70 Functional characterization of these LRK10 L kinases will be an important step toward elucidating their roles in desiccation tolerance.

Bottom Line: Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation.Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation.The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California , Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration. These regulators transduce signal cascades of molecular pathways, including the up-regulation of ABA-dependent and independent drought stress pathways and the activation of protective mechanisms for coping with oxidative damage. Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation. Secondary metabolism may participate in the desiccation tolerance of M. flabellifolia as indicated by increases in transcript abundance of genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation. During rehydration, the transcriptome is also enriched in transcripts of genes encoding TFs and PKs, as well as genes involved in photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus