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Transcriptomic analysis reveals numerous diverse protein kinases and transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia.

Ma C, Wang H, Macnish AJ, Estrada-Melo AC, Lin J, Chang Y, Reid MS, Jiang CZ - Hortic Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation.Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation.The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California , Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration. These regulators transduce signal cascades of molecular pathways, including the up-regulation of ABA-dependent and independent drought stress pathways and the activation of protective mechanisms for coping with oxidative damage. Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation. Secondary metabolism may participate in the desiccation tolerance of M. flabellifolia as indicated by increases in transcript abundance of genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation. During rehydration, the transcriptome is also enriched in transcripts of genes encoding TFs and PKs, as well as genes involved in photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GO functional classification analysis of DTGs during dehydration (a) and rehydration (b). Histograms representing enriched functional distributions in each stage.
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fig4: GO functional classification analysis of DTGs during dehydration (a) and rehydration (b). Histograms representing enriched functional distributions in each stage.

Mentions: To evaluate the potential functions of genes that showed significant transcriptional changes during dehydration and rehydration in M. flabellifolia, we examined the GO enrichment of DTGs at each dehydration and rehydration stage. The biological processes that were significantly enriched early in dehydration included many defense responses such as response to chitin, cold, wounding, and fungi (Figure 4a). This is consistent with a previous transcriptomic study in the resurrection plant H. rhodopensis in which many genes involved in acquiring tolerance to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses were induced by desiccation stress.20 In striking contrast, the DTGs represented in moderately dehydrated and desiccated leaves participate in photosystem II assembly, thylakoid membrane organization, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and photosynthesis (Figure 4a). These data suggest that alteration of photosynthesis is an important strategy in response to desiccation for M. flabellifolia. Moreover, genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis were enriched in moderately dehydrated, desiccated, and rehydrated leaves (Figure 4a and b). Isopentenyl disphosphate is a precursor of all plant isoprenoids,39 which are a diverse group of metabolites including primary metabolites such as sterols, chlorophylls, carotenoids, quinones, and hormones (brassinosteroids, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid (ABA)) and secondary metabolites participating in plant defense and communication such as pigments, volatiles, and defense compounds.40,41


Transcriptomic analysis reveals numerous diverse protein kinases and transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia.

Ma C, Wang H, Macnish AJ, Estrada-Melo AC, Lin J, Chang Y, Reid MS, Jiang CZ - Hortic Res (2015)

GO functional classification analysis of DTGs during dehydration (a) and rehydration (b). Histograms representing enriched functional distributions in each stage.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595987&req=5

fig4: GO functional classification analysis of DTGs during dehydration (a) and rehydration (b). Histograms representing enriched functional distributions in each stage.
Mentions: To evaluate the potential functions of genes that showed significant transcriptional changes during dehydration and rehydration in M. flabellifolia, we examined the GO enrichment of DTGs at each dehydration and rehydration stage. The biological processes that were significantly enriched early in dehydration included many defense responses such as response to chitin, cold, wounding, and fungi (Figure 4a). This is consistent with a previous transcriptomic study in the resurrection plant H. rhodopensis in which many genes involved in acquiring tolerance to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses were induced by desiccation stress.20 In striking contrast, the DTGs represented in moderately dehydrated and desiccated leaves participate in photosystem II assembly, thylakoid membrane organization, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and photosynthesis (Figure 4a). These data suggest that alteration of photosynthesis is an important strategy in response to desiccation for M. flabellifolia. Moreover, genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis were enriched in moderately dehydrated, desiccated, and rehydrated leaves (Figure 4a and b). Isopentenyl disphosphate is a precursor of all plant isoprenoids,39 which are a diverse group of metabolites including primary metabolites such as sterols, chlorophylls, carotenoids, quinones, and hormones (brassinosteroids, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid (ABA)) and secondary metabolites participating in plant defense and communication such as pigments, volatiles, and defense compounds.40,41

Bottom Line: Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation.Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation.The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of California , Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

ABSTRACT
The woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia has remarkable tolerance to desiccation. Pyro-sequencing technology permitted us to analyze the transcriptome of M. flabellifolia during both dehydration and rehydration. We identified a total of 8287 and 8542 differentially transcribed genes during dehydration and rehydration treatments respectively. Approximately 295 transcription factors (TFs) and 484 protein kinases (PKs) were up- or down-regulated in response to desiccation stress. Among these, the transcript levels of 53 TFs and 91 PKs increased rapidly and peaked early during dehydration. These regulators transduce signal cascades of molecular pathways, including the up-regulation of ABA-dependent and independent drought stress pathways and the activation of protective mechanisms for coping with oxidative damage. Antioxidant systems are up-regulated, and the photosynthetic system is modified to reduce ROS generation. Secondary metabolism may participate in the desiccation tolerance of M. flabellifolia as indicated by increases in transcript abundance of genes involved in isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. Up-regulation of genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and sucrose phosphate synthase is also associated with increased tolerance to desiccation. During rehydration, the transcriptome is also enriched in transcripts of genes encoding TFs and PKs, as well as genes involved in photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. The data reported here contribute comprehensive insights into the molecular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in M. flabellifolia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus