Limits...
Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity.

Kreuder Johnson C, Hitchens PL, Smiley Evans T, Goldstein T, Thomas K, Clements A, Joly DO, Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Karesh WB, Mazet JK - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden.Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future disease emergence risk.Viruses transmitted to humans during practices that facilitate mixing of diverse animal species had significantly higher host plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA USA.

ABSTRACT
Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden. Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future disease emergence risk. We examine the animal hosts and transmission mechanisms involved in spillover of zoonotic viruses to date, and discover that viruses with high host plasticity (i.e. taxonomically and ecologically diverse host range) were more likely to amplify viral spillover by secondary human-to-human transmission and have broader geographic spread. Viruses transmitted to humans during practices that facilitate mixing of diverse animal species had significantly higher host plasticity. Our findings suggest that animal-to-human spillover of new viruses that are capable of infecting diverse host species signal emerging disease events with higher pandemic potential in that these viruses are more likely to amplify by human-to-human transmission with spread on a global scale.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Host unipartite network map showing high host plasticity among zoonotic viruses with wild and domestic animal hosts connected by shared viruses.High connectivity between hosts by more shared viruses is evident for domestic animal hosts (green) and wild animal hosts (purple) that are most centrally located. Host node size is proportionate to the number of connections each host has to another host based on shared viruses. The width of each edge connecting hosts is relative to the number of viruses shared by the connection between hosts.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595845&req=5

f2: Host unipartite network map showing high host plasticity among zoonotic viruses with wild and domestic animal hosts connected by shared viruses.High connectivity between hosts by more shared viruses is evident for domestic animal hosts (green) and wild animal hosts (purple) that are most centrally located. Host node size is proportionate to the number of connections each host has to another host based on shared viruses. The width of each edge connecting hosts is relative to the number of viruses shared by the connection between hosts.

Mentions: Emerging pathogens have been noted for their ability to infect a range of animal hosts578910. We find that most (63%) zoonotic viruses infecting humans were reported in animal hosts from at least two different taxonomic orders, and 45% were reported in four or more orders, in addition to humans. The virus-host unipartite network illustrates high connectivity among host groups sharing zoonotic viruses and the central role domestic animals play in cross-species transmission (Fig. 2). In a Poisson model predicting host range and evaluating common hosts and high-risk transmission interfaces, viruses with domestic animal hosts occurred in twice as many host orders than other viruses (Table 1). Most domestic animal groups clustered in the middle of the host network with high centrality measures and a high number of shared viruses (Fig. 2), indicating that domestic animals play a key role in cross-species transmission of zoonotic viruses. Among viruses from wildlife, we found higher host plasticity (ie, hosts from a higher number of taxonomic orders) in viruses transmitted at high-risk interfaces involving wild animals kept as pets, maintained in sanctuaries or zoos, and sold at markets, which were collapsed into one category due to similar effect and significance in the final Poisson model. We also found that vector-borne viruses were reported in three times the number of host taxonomic groups than non-vector-borne viruses, indicating that vector-borne pathogens have significantly broader host range than non-vector-borne viruses.


Spillover and pandemic properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity.

Kreuder Johnson C, Hitchens PL, Smiley Evans T, Goldstein T, Thomas K, Clements A, Joly DO, Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Karesh WB, Mazet JK - Sci Rep (2015)

Host unipartite network map showing high host plasticity among zoonotic viruses with wild and domestic animal hosts connected by shared viruses.High connectivity between hosts by more shared viruses is evident for domestic animal hosts (green) and wild animal hosts (purple) that are most centrally located. Host node size is proportionate to the number of connections each host has to another host based on shared viruses. The width of each edge connecting hosts is relative to the number of viruses shared by the connection between hosts.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595845&req=5

f2: Host unipartite network map showing high host plasticity among zoonotic viruses with wild and domestic animal hosts connected by shared viruses.High connectivity between hosts by more shared viruses is evident for domestic animal hosts (green) and wild animal hosts (purple) that are most centrally located. Host node size is proportionate to the number of connections each host has to another host based on shared viruses. The width of each edge connecting hosts is relative to the number of viruses shared by the connection between hosts.
Mentions: Emerging pathogens have been noted for their ability to infect a range of animal hosts578910. We find that most (63%) zoonotic viruses infecting humans were reported in animal hosts from at least two different taxonomic orders, and 45% were reported in four or more orders, in addition to humans. The virus-host unipartite network illustrates high connectivity among host groups sharing zoonotic viruses and the central role domestic animals play in cross-species transmission (Fig. 2). In a Poisson model predicting host range and evaluating common hosts and high-risk transmission interfaces, viruses with domestic animal hosts occurred in twice as many host orders than other viruses (Table 1). Most domestic animal groups clustered in the middle of the host network with high centrality measures and a high number of shared viruses (Fig. 2), indicating that domestic animals play a key role in cross-species transmission of zoonotic viruses. Among viruses from wildlife, we found higher host plasticity (ie, hosts from a higher number of taxonomic orders) in viruses transmitted at high-risk interfaces involving wild animals kept as pets, maintained in sanctuaries or zoos, and sold at markets, which were collapsed into one category due to similar effect and significance in the final Poisson model. We also found that vector-borne viruses were reported in three times the number of host taxonomic groups than non-vector-borne viruses, indicating that vector-borne pathogens have significantly broader host range than non-vector-borne viruses.

Bottom Line: Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden.Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future disease emergence risk.Viruses transmitted to humans during practices that facilitate mixing of diverse animal species had significantly higher host plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA USA.

ABSTRACT
Most human infectious diseases, especially recently emerging pathogens, originate from animals, and ongoing disease transmission from animals to people presents a significant global health burden. Recognition of the epidemiologic circumstances involved in zoonotic spillover, amplification, and spread of diseases is essential for prioritizing surveillance and predicting future disease emergence risk. We examine the animal hosts and transmission mechanisms involved in spillover of zoonotic viruses to date, and discover that viruses with high host plasticity (i.e. taxonomically and ecologically diverse host range) were more likely to amplify viral spillover by secondary human-to-human transmission and have broader geographic spread. Viruses transmitted to humans during practices that facilitate mixing of diverse animal species had significantly higher host plasticity. Our findings suggest that animal-to-human spillover of new viruses that are capable of infecting diverse host species signal emerging disease events with higher pandemic potential in that these viruses are more likely to amplify by human-to-human transmission with spread on a global scale.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus