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A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

Randolph ME, Pavlath GK - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse.The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated.Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA.

ABSTRACT
The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Myofiber structure and cellular progression of myogenesis. Myofibers are surrounded by a basal lamina, underneath which lie satellite cells in close apposition to the myofiber. With injury, satellite cells proliferate and give rise to myoblasts, which differentiate, migrate, adhere, and fuse with one another to form multiple myotubes within the basal lamina scaffold. Myoblasts/myotubes fuse with the stumps of the surviving myofiber and myotubes also fuse with each other to repair the injured myofiber. Regenerated myofibers are identifiable by the presence of centrally located nuclei. Representative hematoxylin and eosin stained muscle cross-sections from chemically injured murine muscles are provided for each stage of muscle regeneration to illustrate the differential tissue morphology.
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Figure 2: Myofiber structure and cellular progression of myogenesis. Myofibers are surrounded by a basal lamina, underneath which lie satellite cells in close apposition to the myofiber. With injury, satellite cells proliferate and give rise to myoblasts, which differentiate, migrate, adhere, and fuse with one another to form multiple myotubes within the basal lamina scaffold. Myoblasts/myotubes fuse with the stumps of the surviving myofiber and myotubes also fuse with each other to repair the injured myofiber. Regenerated myofibers are identifiable by the presence of centrally located nuclei. Representative hematoxylin and eosin stained muscle cross-sections from chemically injured murine muscles are provided for each stage of muscle regeneration to illustrate the differential tissue morphology.

Mentions: Muscle regeneration is a robust and complex cellular process that restores injured muscle to a state that is morphologically and functionally similar to that of uninjured muscle (Figure 2; Abmayr and Pavlath, 2012). Regeneration of skeletal muscle occurs in two distinct phases: a degenerative phase and a regenerative phase (Rai et al., 2014). The main characteristics of the degenerative phase involve myofiber sarcolemmal damage or myofiber necrosis, followed by an influx of mononucleated inflammatory cells and an increase in fibroblasts (Mathew et al., 2011; Murphy et al., 2011; Rai et al., 2014). Factors released from damaged myofibers initiate an inflammatory response that recruits neutrophils, macrophages, and activates fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate the removal of cellular debris and regulate muscle repair (McLennan, 1996; Lescaudron et al., 1999; Joe et al., 2010; Uezumi et al., 2010; Pallafacchina et al., 2013). The basal lamina remains intact acting as a scaffold for the next phase, muscle regeneration (Schmalbruch, 1976). Several molecular signals, such as growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines, are released which activate satellite cells both locally and systemically within the first 24–48 h following injury (Chang and Rudnicki, 2014; Rodgers et al., 2014). Myoblasts then terminally differentiate becoming post-mitotic myocytes, which then fuse with other myocytes or myofibers to regenerate or repair damaged myofibers. Thereby, new myonuclei are added to damaged or nascent myofibers (Abmayr and Pavlath, 2012). A subset of myogenic cells repopulate the satellite cell niche, thus maintaining and replenishing the quiescent satellite cell pool for subsequent rounds of regeneration (Collins et al., 2005; Shinin et al., 2006).


A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

Randolph ME, Pavlath GK - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Myofiber structure and cellular progression of myogenesis. Myofibers are surrounded by a basal lamina, underneath which lie satellite cells in close apposition to the myofiber. With injury, satellite cells proliferate and give rise to myoblasts, which differentiate, migrate, adhere, and fuse with one another to form multiple myotubes within the basal lamina scaffold. Myoblasts/myotubes fuse with the stumps of the surviving myofiber and myotubes also fuse with each other to repair the injured myofiber. Regenerated myofibers are identifiable by the presence of centrally located nuclei. Representative hematoxylin and eosin stained muscle cross-sections from chemically injured murine muscles are provided for each stage of muscle regeneration to illustrate the differential tissue morphology.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595652&req=5

Figure 2: Myofiber structure and cellular progression of myogenesis. Myofibers are surrounded by a basal lamina, underneath which lie satellite cells in close apposition to the myofiber. With injury, satellite cells proliferate and give rise to myoblasts, which differentiate, migrate, adhere, and fuse with one another to form multiple myotubes within the basal lamina scaffold. Myoblasts/myotubes fuse with the stumps of the surviving myofiber and myotubes also fuse with each other to repair the injured myofiber. Regenerated myofibers are identifiable by the presence of centrally located nuclei. Representative hematoxylin and eosin stained muscle cross-sections from chemically injured murine muscles are provided for each stage of muscle regeneration to illustrate the differential tissue morphology.
Mentions: Muscle regeneration is a robust and complex cellular process that restores injured muscle to a state that is morphologically and functionally similar to that of uninjured muscle (Figure 2; Abmayr and Pavlath, 2012). Regeneration of skeletal muscle occurs in two distinct phases: a degenerative phase and a regenerative phase (Rai et al., 2014). The main characteristics of the degenerative phase involve myofiber sarcolemmal damage or myofiber necrosis, followed by an influx of mononucleated inflammatory cells and an increase in fibroblasts (Mathew et al., 2011; Murphy et al., 2011; Rai et al., 2014). Factors released from damaged myofibers initiate an inflammatory response that recruits neutrophils, macrophages, and activates fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate the removal of cellular debris and regulate muscle repair (McLennan, 1996; Lescaudron et al., 1999; Joe et al., 2010; Uezumi et al., 2010; Pallafacchina et al., 2013). The basal lamina remains intact acting as a scaffold for the next phase, muscle regeneration (Schmalbruch, 1976). Several molecular signals, such as growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines, are released which activate satellite cells both locally and systemically within the first 24–48 h following injury (Chang and Rudnicki, 2014; Rodgers et al., 2014). Myoblasts then terminally differentiate becoming post-mitotic myocytes, which then fuse with other myocytes or myofibers to regenerate or repair damaged myofibers. Thereby, new myonuclei are added to damaged or nascent myofibers (Abmayr and Pavlath, 2012). A subset of myogenic cells repopulate the satellite cell niche, thus maintaining and replenishing the quiescent satellite cell pool for subsequent rounds of regeneration (Collins et al., 2005; Shinin et al., 2006).

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse.The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated.Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA.

ABSTRACT
The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus