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A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

Randolph ME, Pavlath GK - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse.The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated.Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA.

ABSTRACT
The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Embryonic mesodermal contributions to adult skeletal muscles. (A) Schematic of mesodermal origins in a 3–5 somite stage mouse embryo. (B) Skeletal muscles of the trunk, limb, diaphgram, and tongue arise from somitic mesoderm. In contrast, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) arise from prechordal mesoderm and cranial paraxial mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch; the masseter muscle from the first and second pharyngeal arches of the cranial paraxial mesoderm, and the pharynx from the third and fourth pharyngeal arches of the caudal paraxial mesoderm. Tongue muscles arise from both somitic and cranial mesoderm while developing within the niche of the cranial mesenchyme, which is supplied by all four pharyngeal arches.
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Figure 1: Embryonic mesodermal contributions to adult skeletal muscles. (A) Schematic of mesodermal origins in a 3–5 somite stage mouse embryo. (B) Skeletal muscles of the trunk, limb, diaphgram, and tongue arise from somitic mesoderm. In contrast, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) arise from prechordal mesoderm and cranial paraxial mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch; the masseter muscle from the first and second pharyngeal arches of the cranial paraxial mesoderm, and the pharynx from the third and fourth pharyngeal arches of the caudal paraxial mesoderm. Tongue muscles arise from both somitic and cranial mesoderm while developing within the niche of the cranial mesenchyme, which is supplied by all four pharyngeal arches.

Mentions: Skeletal muscles of rodent hindlimbs are commonly used to study satellite cells as these muscles are easy to identify, dissect, collect, and manipulate experimentally. The skeletal muscles of the limbs and abdomen arise from somitic mesoderm and are referred to as hypaxial muscles (Figure 1). They arise developmentally from the ventrolateral dermomyotome of the segmented paraxial mesoderm. In vivo and in vitro studies examining limb muscles provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and regulatory pathways involved with skeletal muscle regeneration, muscle growth, and satellite cell biology.


A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

Randolph ME, Pavlath GK - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Embryonic mesodermal contributions to adult skeletal muscles. (A) Schematic of mesodermal origins in a 3–5 somite stage mouse embryo. (B) Skeletal muscles of the trunk, limb, diaphgram, and tongue arise from somitic mesoderm. In contrast, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) arise from prechordal mesoderm and cranial paraxial mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch; the masseter muscle from the first and second pharyngeal arches of the cranial paraxial mesoderm, and the pharynx from the third and fourth pharyngeal arches of the caudal paraxial mesoderm. Tongue muscles arise from both somitic and cranial mesoderm while developing within the niche of the cranial mesenchyme, which is supplied by all four pharyngeal arches.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595652&req=5

Figure 1: Embryonic mesodermal contributions to adult skeletal muscles. (A) Schematic of mesodermal origins in a 3–5 somite stage mouse embryo. (B) Skeletal muscles of the trunk, limb, diaphgram, and tongue arise from somitic mesoderm. In contrast, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) arise from prechordal mesoderm and cranial paraxial mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch; the masseter muscle from the first and second pharyngeal arches of the cranial paraxial mesoderm, and the pharynx from the third and fourth pharyngeal arches of the caudal paraxial mesoderm. Tongue muscles arise from both somitic and cranial mesoderm while developing within the niche of the cranial mesenchyme, which is supplied by all four pharyngeal arches.
Mentions: Skeletal muscles of rodent hindlimbs are commonly used to study satellite cells as these muscles are easy to identify, dissect, collect, and manipulate experimentally. The skeletal muscles of the limbs and abdomen arise from somitic mesoderm and are referred to as hypaxial muscles (Figure 1). They arise developmentally from the ventrolateral dermomyotome of the segmented paraxial mesoderm. In vivo and in vitro studies examining limb muscles provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and regulatory pathways involved with skeletal muscle regeneration, muscle growth, and satellite cell biology.

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse.The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated.Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA.

ABSTRACT
The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus