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Experimental observation of N00N state Bloch oscillations.

Lebugle M, Gräfe M, Heilmann R, Perez-Leija A, Nolte S, Szameit A - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces.The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching.Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces. Albeit this phenomenon is deeply rooted into the very foundations of quantum mechanics, all experimental observations so far have only contemplated dynamics of one and two particles initially prepared in separable local states. Evidently, a more general description of genuinely quantum Bloch oscillations will be achieved on excitation of a Bloch oscillator by nonlocal states. Here we report the observation of Bloch oscillations of two-particle N00N states, and discuss the nonlocality on the ground of Bell-like inequalities. The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching. Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.

No MeSH data available.


Characterization of bunching to antibunching transitions and observation of nonlocality of the states.(a,b) Interparticle distance distribution g(k−l) at four propagation distances for a symmetric input state  (a) and an antisymmetric input state  (b). (c,d) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with a symmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.4λB, and corresponding simulation. (e,f) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with an antisymmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.1λB and corresponding simulation. Null or negative elements in the inequality matrix are displayed as a blank cell. The positive elements in the matrix, that is with Vk,l/σk,l>0, indicate the presence of correlations with no classical analogue.
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f4: Characterization of bunching to antibunching transitions and observation of nonlocality of the states.(a,b) Interparticle distance distribution g(k−l) at four propagation distances for a symmetric input state (a) and an antisymmetric input state (b). (c,d) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with a symmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.4λB, and corresponding simulation. (e,f) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with an antisymmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.1λB and corresponding simulation. Null or negative elements in the inequality matrix are displayed as a blank cell. The positive elements in the matrix, that is with Vk,l/σk,l>0, indicate the presence of correlations with no classical analogue.

Mentions: To gain more insights about the correlation patterns, we extracted the interparticle distance distribution given by . Here k−l is the distance between sites k and l, and δ is the number of matrix elements Γq,q+k−l satisfying the inequality q+k−l≤N. Figure 4a shows how g (k−l) evolves for the symmetric input state. We observe a gradual transition on propagation, from a double-peak shape (antibunching) to a single-peak one (bunching), which confirms that the photon pair passes through a correlation turning point. Furthermore, to evidence probability interference as the underlying mechanism of the antibunching/bunching transition, we performed additional measurements using the device at 0.4λB with two distinguishable photons, which thereby manifest no quantum interference (Supplementary Fig. 1; Supplementary Note 1).


Experimental observation of N00N state Bloch oscillations.

Lebugle M, Gräfe M, Heilmann R, Perez-Leija A, Nolte S, Szameit A - Nat Commun (2015)

Characterization of bunching to antibunching transitions and observation of nonlocality of the states.(a,b) Interparticle distance distribution g(k−l) at four propagation distances for a symmetric input state  (a) and an antisymmetric input state  (b). (c,d) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with a symmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.4λB, and corresponding simulation. (e,f) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with an antisymmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.1λB and corresponding simulation. Null or negative elements in the inequality matrix are displayed as a blank cell. The positive elements in the matrix, that is with Vk,l/σk,l>0, indicate the presence of correlations with no classical analogue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595631&req=5

f4: Characterization of bunching to antibunching transitions and observation of nonlocality of the states.(a,b) Interparticle distance distribution g(k−l) at four propagation distances for a symmetric input state (a) and an antisymmetric input state (b). (c,d) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with a symmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.4λB, and corresponding simulation. (e,f) Violations of the Bell-like inequality normalized to s.d. obtained with an antisymmetric input state at a propagation distance of 0.1λB and corresponding simulation. Null or negative elements in the inequality matrix are displayed as a blank cell. The positive elements in the matrix, that is with Vk,l/σk,l>0, indicate the presence of correlations with no classical analogue.
Mentions: To gain more insights about the correlation patterns, we extracted the interparticle distance distribution given by . Here k−l is the distance between sites k and l, and δ is the number of matrix elements Γq,q+k−l satisfying the inequality q+k−l≤N. Figure 4a shows how g (k−l) evolves for the symmetric input state. We observe a gradual transition on propagation, from a double-peak shape (antibunching) to a single-peak one (bunching), which confirms that the photon pair passes through a correlation turning point. Furthermore, to evidence probability interference as the underlying mechanism of the antibunching/bunching transition, we performed additional measurements using the device at 0.4λB with two distinguishable photons, which thereby manifest no quantum interference (Supplementary Fig. 1; Supplementary Note 1).

Bottom Line: Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces.The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching.Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Bloch oscillations of quantum particles manifest themselves as periodic spreading and relocalization of the associated wave functions when traversing lattice potentials subject to external gradient forces. Albeit this phenomenon is deeply rooted into the very foundations of quantum mechanics, all experimental observations so far have only contemplated dynamics of one and two particles initially prepared in separable local states. Evidently, a more general description of genuinely quantum Bloch oscillations will be achieved on excitation of a Bloch oscillator by nonlocal states. Here we report the observation of Bloch oscillations of two-particle N00N states, and discuss the nonlocality on the ground of Bell-like inequalities. The time evolution of two-photon N00N states in Bloch oscillators, whether symmetric, antisymmetric or partially symmetric, reveals transitions from particle antibunching to bunching. Consequently, the initial states can be tailored to produce spatial correlations akin to those of bosons, fermions and anyons, presenting potential applications in photonic quantum simulation.

No MeSH data available.