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Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

Wei Z, Huang JF, Hu J, Gu YA, Yang CL, Mei XL, Shen QR, Xu YC, Friman VP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively.Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R.Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nonlinear regression analyses (Equation: Sigmoidal, Sigmoid, 3-Parameter) between mean maximum temperature averaged over crop season (Tcs) and both biocontrol efficacy of BOF (black line) and disease incidence in control treatment (grey line).
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pone.0139313.g004: Nonlinear regression analyses (Equation: Sigmoidal, Sigmoid, 3-Parameter) between mean maximum temperature averaged over crop season (Tcs) and both biocontrol efficacy of BOF (black line) and disease incidence in control treatment (grey line).

Mentions: The Tcs correlated significantly with both DI (R = 0.9431, P < 0.0001, positive correlation) and BCE (R = -0.9086, P < 0.0001; negative correlation Fig 4). When Tcs ranged from 12°C to 23°C, the DIs in both control and BOF-treated plants were approximately 10%, while the BOF biocontrol efficacy ranged from 60% to 70% (Fig 4). As Tcs increased to 26°C, the DI increased to approximately 35%, and the BCE decreased to 45% (Fig 4). When Tcs exceeded 28°C, the DI increased to 55%. Under such conditions, BOF lost its biocontrol efficacy (Fig 4).


Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

Wei Z, Huang JF, Hu J, Gu YA, Yang CL, Mei XL, Shen QR, Xu YC, Friman VP - PLoS ONE (2015)

Nonlinear regression analyses (Equation: Sigmoidal, Sigmoid, 3-Parameter) between mean maximum temperature averaged over crop season (Tcs) and both biocontrol efficacy of BOF (black line) and disease incidence in control treatment (grey line).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4595502&req=5

pone.0139313.g004: Nonlinear regression analyses (Equation: Sigmoidal, Sigmoid, 3-Parameter) between mean maximum temperature averaged over crop season (Tcs) and both biocontrol efficacy of BOF (black line) and disease incidence in control treatment (grey line).
Mentions: The Tcs correlated significantly with both DI (R = 0.9431, P < 0.0001, positive correlation) and BCE (R = -0.9086, P < 0.0001; negative correlation Fig 4). When Tcs ranged from 12°C to 23°C, the DIs in both control and BOF-treated plants were approximately 10%, while the BOF biocontrol efficacy ranged from 60% to 70% (Fig 4). As Tcs increased to 26°C, the DI increased to approximately 35%, and the BCE decreased to 45% (Fig 4). When Tcs exceeded 28°C, the DI increased to 55%. Under such conditions, BOF lost its biocontrol efficacy (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively.Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R.Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple but effective way to control R. solanacearum disease outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus